Sivas - Atatürk's Visits to Sivas

Sivas - Atatürk's Visits to Sivas
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Sivas - Atatürk's Visits to Sivas



“Sivas”, which was established on the northern slope of the Kızılırmak plain joining the mountains in the east of Central Anatolia, is 1285 meters high and it is stated in the sources that its name comes from “Sebastia” in the Roman period. one

In terms of settlement, it has not been determined whether the city was founded in the place of Seljuk Sivas, Roman Sebastia or elsewhere, but there is no doubt that the city was completely rebuilt by the Turks, like other Anatolian cities. 2

Since it is located at a crossroads where trade routes extending in the north-south and east-west directions of Anatolia intersect, Sivas emerges as an important center during the Hittite 3 , Roman, Byzantine 4 and Seljuk 5 periods. Especially during the Seljuk period, like Konya and Kayseri, Sivas has reached an important level in terms of administration, culture and economy, since it was used as an intermediate state center. 6

Sivas did not lose its importance in the Middle Ages and became the center of Danishmends, Seljuks, Eretna7 and Kadı Burhanettin State. In the time of the Turks, Sivas was one of the trade centers of Anatolia, which was well protected and abundant, and also on the east-west route connecting Syria, Mesopotamia and the Black Sea. 8 Indeed, Sivas was the center of exchange of the northern and southern nations during this period. Slaves, concubines and furs from the north were distributed to Islamic countries from here.

In the 14th and 15th centuries, the shaking of the feudal order in Europe and the development of city life led European countries to commercial relations with Muslims to a large extent. In this way, the commercial activities that started in the east-west direction were concentrated in Anatolia. The caravans coming from Antalya stopped by Konya and Kayseri, arrived in Sivas, and went from there to Tabriz by way of Erzincan and Erzurum.

When Tabriz became the largest center of the Islamic world by replacing Baghdad during the Ilkhanate period, the importance of this road and therefore Sivas increased completely. Especially in the 13th century, Sivas became a center where merchants from many countries settled and prepared caravans from there to all over the world. For this reason, merchant colonies of various nations were established in the city. The Genoese opened a consulate here. While some of the Genoese merchants stayed in the passenger inns, others lived in the houses they rented in the city. There were also churches in Sivas. On the other hand, there were also a few Jews trading in the city. It is seen that there is a Jewish Quarter in Sivas in the foundation charter belonging to the sahibindenye Madrasa. 9

Due to the trade with the northern countries, Turkish Bulgarians from the Volga regions also settled in the city. The same endowment informs about the existence of a Madrasa-i Bulgari belonging to them. Sivas, which has become an international transit city, was also a domestic trade center and a market for the goods exported by Anatolia. The fact that the city was located in the center of a large wheat production area also increased its importance. Foreigners were buying Turkish carpets, which were famous in the Middle Ages, from Sivas. Sivas had become an industrial center as well as a commercial center. In particular, woolen and cotton weaving was advanced. Hamdullah Kazvini says that Sivas sofs (Sûf-i Sivasi) are famous and go as far as Iran.10

As it can be seen, Sivas experienced its most glorious age, especially in the 13th century, and became one of the leading towns of Anatolia in terms of economy, social and cultural aspects. Ibn Batuta, who passed through Sivas in the middle of the 14th century, gives the following information about this place: “This is one of the largest cities of a country in Iraq. The General Governor and the leading military commanders sit there. The city is both beautiful and well-maintained, with wide streets. The bazaars are overflowing with people. There is a large building called Darü's-Siya / Beğler Mansion, built in the style of a madrasah, in which only guests from the lineage of the prophets are hosted...” 11

Sivas continued this bright period as the center of the Kadı Burhanettin State in the 14th century.12 The beginning of the gradual depreciation of the city of Sivas begins with the Mongol ruler Timur's capture and destruction of this city. 13Sivas, which was captured by the Ottomans in 1398 during the reign of Yıldırım Beyazıd, was the provincial center of the Ottoman state organization. During the interregnum that started after Yıldırım Beyazid was defeated by Timur in the Battle of Ankara and was captured, the Mezid Bey Government was established in Sivas and continued for five years (1402-1407). After that, the city was again under Ottoman rule. Sivas, which was a beylerbeylik during the Ottoman rule, was given the name "Rumiye-i Sugra" or "State of Rum" in the 16th century. Pasha, who was the Governor of Sivas, which was the Pasha Sanjak, used to live in the lower castle in the place called “Pasha Mansion”. According to Evliya Çelebi, who stated that it was legal for the Pasha to live here, the price of Sivas Pasha was 900,000 coins. Being 48 zeamets and 928 timaris, this province had seven sanjaks: Amasya, Bozok, Canik, Çorum, Divriği, Arapkir and Sivas. 15The borders of the state were Erzurum and Diyarbakır in the east, Maraş and Karaman in the south, Karaman and Anadolu provinces in the west, and the Black Sea in the north. 16

Sivas was a prosperous city in this century. It was one of the most important provinces of Anatolia with its great mosques, caravanserais, baths and madrasahs. In the first years of the 17th century, Polish Simeon, who was traveling through Anatolia, also stopped by Sivas. He gives the following information about Sivas in his travel book: “Sivas is a very large, very populated city with plenty of bread, meat, milk and oil...” 17

Evliya Çelebi, who passed through Sivas in the middle of the 17th century (1649), also gives detailed information about Sivas in his Travelogue. According to that; “Sivas was divided into 40 neighborhoods in the area surrounded by the walls and there were 4600 houses. There were 18 inns in the city and 1000 (?) shops in the covered bazaar around the Ulu Mosque, 140 Ibtida School, 45 fountains and baths. 18

Sivas, which continued this existence throughout the century, was under the influence of the Çapanoğulları from time to time, and suffered a lot from the revolts of the governors and feudal lords against the state. Entering the borders of Sivas in this century was a matter in itself. 19 Sestini, who passed here in the second half of this century, writes that while they were in the presence of the notables of the city, a group of Armenians performed outside, broke the windows, set fire to the house, and saved their lives by escaping from the harem. He later learned that the reason for this revolt was that this person levied a tax of 100,000 kuruş. The following information provided by Sestini is also really interesting: “People generally eat onions. Vegetables and fruits cannot grow except onions. The streets smell of onions more than corn”. 20

When we look at the observations of some travelers who passed through Sivas in the 19th century; Moltke, who was a consultant in the Ottoman army and a good observer, gives the following information about Sivas: “March 11, 1838- Sivas. We arrived in Sivas towards evening, after a journey made with extreme difficulty and with only a mean step, yesterday... It was covered with a thick layer of snow as far as the eye could see, only the steep cliffs were separated from this uniform white cover, because there was no such thing as trees. In the middle of this white is Sivas with its magnificent appearance, domes, minarets and old bastions. There is an inner castle on a hill and a second one in the middle of the city. The houses are covered with earth drops instead of roofs. But nowhere have I seen so much filth all together.” 21

F. Amsworth (1839), who toured Anatolia in the same years, gives the following information about Sivas in his work: “We made a short and easy journey from Haly's valley (Kızilirmak Valley) which lasted for about six hours... Sivas, with a population of sixteen thousand people, one-fourth of which is Christian. it is a big city. It is the residence of the pope. It has a central location. It is now the gateway to Samsun, where steamships sail, and an excellent warehouse for British merchants to find ready for their goods. The city is not very healthy because of the pits and the narrow and dirty streets.” Mordmann, who traveled through Anatolia between 1850 and 1859 and also stopped by Sivas in the meantime, shares the same observation with his contemporaries about cleaning. “What we liked the most when we entered Sivas was the copious amount of mud that we have never seen anywhere else in Anatolia.” 22

In the second half of the 19th century, a sudden economic collapse is observed in Sivas, as in other Ottoman cities. 23 Sivas was able to see comfort and peace only after the Tanzimat. In the organization made after 1864, Sivas was made a province24 and Amasya, Tokad and Şebinkarahisar sanjaks were attached to it. According to this provincial organization, Sivas, which includes 3 sanjaks, 22 districts and 65 subdistricts, became the center of the province. Thus, Sivas covered an area of ​​60,300 km2. 25

Sivas was considered a place of exile during the tyranny period. Pashas sent from the Ottoman palace would administer the province as the representative of the tyrant sultan. For those who were punished for this and wanted to be removed from Istanbul, this city in the middle of Anatolia was especially chosen. 26 Despite this, we see governors who served as governors in Sivas during this period and left their mark. Halil Rıfat Pasha, who was the governor between January 9, 1882 and September 17, 1885, is a statesman trying to change the color of the province. His eleven “tembihnames” he published 27As well as giving necessary advice to the people and the farmers with the motto of "The place you cannot go is not yours", it connected Sivas to all neighboring provinces by highways. In addition, he built many bridges and the 42-room government mansion, which is still used as a government building today, as well as a prison, military high school, dar-ül-muallimin and the Education Office with five rooms and a hall. 28 The first high school, high school and sultanis of the region were established here, Sivas High School was opened in 1887 and the art institute was opened in 1902. 29

Muammer Bey, who was the governor between 1913-1917, also gave importance to the development of Sivas, made great efforts to restore the corrupt public order of the province with external provocations, and provided great assistance in the provision of food and supply for the army in the east. In the meantime, he established scout camps with the youth and provided the transportation of food to the army's supply center. Among these intense works, he worked for the architect of Sivas .He established orphanages and their number reached twenty in his own time. Among these works he carried out in the harsh conditions of World War I, laying the foundation of the teacher's school building, military hospital, central command and corps buildings and the third floor addition of the government mansion are his works. He was the first to establish the provincial printing house. In addition, he brought sickle and threshing machines for the development of the farmer in terms of agriculture, and the student's home was opened with his inspiration and patronage. 31 Although he wanted to do a lot, the conditions of the First World War prevented him from doing so.

We do not see any solidity in the information about Sivas at the beginning of World War I. Figures given are based on estimates only. The Ottoman administration's magnificent attention to keeping archives dispersed during the state's lapse years. Especially provincial records II. In the years following the Constitutional Monarchy, it was plunged into complete darkness. After that, we owe what we knew until very recently to miraculous scraps of information left in the middle of nowhere. 32Especially the war movements, population situation and problems in the eastern region played an important role throughout the entire war. Some immigrants came from Kars as Circassians, and most of them were settled within the county of Şarkışla. Migrations, legal displacements, regional evacuations etc. It has been one of the most important issues of the eastern region during the entire 1914-1928 period. Migrations were either the result of invasions or the result of evacuations behind the front lines.

Before the First World War, Sivas Province was as follows 33 :

Sivas Province Center

Sivas Amasya Liva Amasya

Tokat Liva Tokat

Karahisar-ı Şarki Liva Şebinkarahisar 


Sivas province, which was not mentioned much before Mustafa Kemal Pasha's arrival in Samsun, which is accepted as the starting date of the National Struggle, did not delay in joining him in a short time like every Anatolian Province after Mustafa Kemal Pasha crossed into Anatolia and started the National Struggle. He found it to be the center of the struggle. As stated in the Amasya Circular, Sivas is the safest place in Anatolia in all respects, in the environment of that day .Although there were many bandits and armed gangs, it was a province where both Hürriyet and Ententeists, who were against the National Struggle, were very active. The Ottoman Government, which had left itself in the hands of the Allied Powers with the Armistice of Mudros, was not only trying to eliminate them, but was fueling them more and more with each passing day. Here, the representative of this government, Sivas Governor Reşit Pasha, did what Istanbul said at first, and finally he could not stand it anymore and said his last word to Istanbul and joined the ranks of the National Struggle. 35

The Anatolian movement, which started with the Erzurum Congress, continued its development with the Sivas Congress and resulted in the Delegation of Representatives taking over the administration of Anatolia. Despite the counter efforts of Istanbul, she finished her studies (İrade'i Milliye) on September 4, 1919 with her 36 men, 37 especially with her women, some of the first movements of the National Struggle started here, and continued after the Delegation of Representatives left Sivas. .

The situation of Sivas Province, which was the scene of many events before the Congress and where everyone was in a state of excitement and rush, returned to a waiting period during the Congress and to its old quiet days. During this whole process, Sivas Province did its best with all its staff and people, and as Mustafa Kemal Pasha said, it took the place it deserved in history with the words "We laid the foundation of the Republic here".38

After the opening of the Grand National Assembly in Ankara , it is not possible to follow what happened in Sivas, except for a few important events . Newspapers such as “Gaye'i Milliye” (1921) and “Mücahede-i Milliye” (1922) were able to cast thin and weak beams of light on Sivas's recent history, albeit very short-lived. Incidentally, we should also mention that the population, courthouse and provincial records that should be kept in place have disappeared forever after a journey that ended in SEKA. The history of Sivas during the years of the National Struggle is in darkness due to these and similar reasons. 40

After the proclamation of the Republic, the reform movements carried out in the process of modernizing Turkey, initiated by Atatürk, were followed with interest and adopted in Sivas. The Hat Revolution, which he started in Kastamonu on August 24, 1925, was immediately accepted in Sivas, and news about hats in the newspapers became frequent. 41 In fact, while the Hat Law was being discussed and debated in the Turkish Grand National Assembly, Sivas Provincial Assembly passed a pioneering decision on 24 November 1925, leaving all the provinces behind in the race for revolution on an issue that needed to be regulated by law.

“About the extension of the masquerading of civilization presented to the General Assembly to the general public, the importation of the ruznâme-i müzakerâta of that day was accepted as an ally, and ber vech-i âti mukarrerat was adopted.

The extension of the hat, with the exception of official clothes, and the punishment of those who oppose it, in particular, in accordance with the law of the administration of the province, or because the matter is essentially municipal, according to the provisions of the municipal law in this section, the evâmir applies even to those who do not obey the municipality. and as a result of the negotiation that took place about the form-i application:

In the central province, one and a half in district centers, one and a half years in town centers, and two months in nevahi and village centers, the extension of the kisve-i madaniye iksâ to all the people was accepted unanimously.

Assembly-i Umum Reis-i Sanisi Hayri.” 42

Sivas played a leading role in the Alphabet Revolution as well as in the Hat Revolution. It is seen that the articles about the Alphabet Revolution in the Kızılırmak Newspaper began on May 17, 1928, when the decision was not made yet. The article titled "If Latin Letters Are Accepted" in the newspaper at that time was published in Latin letters. Even the newspapers of Istanbul started to include Latin letters in their printing as of August 9, 1928. While there are many typographical errors in the aforementioned article, Arabic letters were used in some parts of the article because there were not enough letters available. Also in the article, the author's declaration that he is ready to teach Latin letters to the public for five hours a week shows how much he desires the Alphabet Reform to be realized. Kızılırmak Newspaper's developments regarding the Alphabet Revolution, It has deemed it its duty to inform the public about the statements made by the authorities on this subject in a timely manner. He immediately conveyed the activities of the Language Committee, all kinds of decisions and communiqués it has taken, to the public through the news it received from Anadolu Agency and other newspapers.43

With the beginning of the Alphabet Revolution, the movement in Sivas increased even more, and new writing was tried to be taught to the people through the courses attended by the deputies.

Sivas never lagged behind in the revolutionary movements that gained momentum after 1925. He always followed his leader in the use of international hours and numerals, 44 in the Turkish call to prayer, 46 in the Surname Law, and in other reform movements. 47

FIRST ARRIVING (27 - 28 June 1919)

The period between May 19, 1919, when Mustafa Kemal Pasha, which is considered to be the beginning of our War of Independence, arrived in Samsun, and April 23, 1920, when a new people's assembly and government took over the administration in Anatolia, the Anatolian people suffered the most, It was the period when he fully became conscious of the National Struggle. Although the Ottoman Government participated in the First World War and suffered the consequences, the War of Independence was a struggle carried out against the Ottoman Government with the possibilities of Anatolia, despite the Ottoman Government and often with the enemy.

When Mustafa Kemal Pasha went to Samsun on the 19th of May, 1919, he was explaining the general situation of the country in detail in the first pages of the "Speech". After the Armistice of Mudros, which was signed on October 30, 1918, it was clearly chosen that Turkey wanted to be divided, that Western Anatolia would be given to Italy and Greece, and that "Beautiful İzmir" would be given to Greece, and that the Armenian State would be established in Eastern Anatolia. . For the first time in its history, the Turkish nation was in such a miserable, helpless and hopeless situation. He was content with this situation of Turks all over the world. Would the Turkish nation, which had brought the world's strongest navy and armies to its knees in Çanakkale, and had lived as a master for centuries, would give up its freedom and accept the chain of slavery that was wanted to be put on its neck?

The news that the Turkish lands would be given to Greece and Armenia aroused the intellectuals. First of all, “Defense-i Law Societies” were established in various parts of the country to ensure the defense of the lands to be given to Greece and Armenia. The Defense-i Law Societies, which were established at the beginning, started to organize for the liberation of Anatolian and Thrace lands, scattered and devoid of central authority, only to ensure the liberation of their own regions. The basic feeling in the establishment of the societies was the feeling of Turkishness. These societies, which were established to prove that the regions they represented belonged to the Turks in terms of history, geography and population, and thus to ensure that they did not leave the Ottoman Empire, considered scientific research, statistical information and propaganda as sufficient to make the big states accept that they were right. programs, It was not prepared with the integrity of the homeland and the whole of the Turkish nation in mind. The names they bear clearly show this.

It was now considered impossible for us to defeat the Allies alone, which we could not defeat together with our allies in World War I. It was the general view of the Istanbul Government and the press to ensure the protection of England without being vainly delusional. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who said, “They will go as they came” the day he saw the enemy navy, believed that an independent Turkish State would only be achieved through a total national war and that the imperialists would be defeated. He realized that he could not be from here and decided to go to Anatolia. The opportunity he was looking for would be given to him by the Istanbul Government and he would be appointed as the "9th Army Inspector" on 5 May 1919.

It was only one month before Mustafa Kemal Pasha went to Anatolia. During this time, contact was made with all army units and the idea of ​​establishing a national organization began to spread. In the order he gave to the 1st Corps Commander Cafer Tayyar Bey in Edirne on 18 June 1919 from Amasya, he said: It has been decided to establish a joint and strong delegation...” 49

In order to realize this aim, some decisions were taken in Amasya on the night of 21-22 June 1919. These decisions, which envisaged the hasty convening of a national congress in Sivas, which is the safest place in all aspects of Anatolia, were announced to the governors and commanders in a letter. Why did Mustafa Kemal Pasha choose Sivas as the base of the National Struggle? We see the reason for this again in the Amasya decisions. Because Sivas, according to the conditions of that day, is the "safe place of Anatolia in every way". Indeed, Sivas is surrounded by large mountains with few passes. If these passes are held with a small force, the occupation of Sivas cannot be easily achieved. The greatest danger may come from an enemy landing from Samsun. For this reason, two divisions of the 3rd Corps blocked the Samsun-Sivas pass. 51

While the decisions of the national revolution were being taken in Amasya, efforts were being made to convene a congress organized by the "Vilayat-i Şarkiye Müdafaa-i Hukuk-u Milliye Cemiyeti" in Erzurum. When the news that Eastern Anatolia would be given to the Armenians was heard and the gentle and submissive policy of Grand Vizier Damat Ferit Pasha regarding the ceding of the eastern provinces to Armenia was understood, this society was established in Istanbul to defend the rights of all the Muslim people of the eastern provinces. Cevat Dursunoğlu, who received the authority to open a branch in Erzurum from the headquarters of the society, came to Erzurum and opened a branch there. The branch, which was established on March 10, 1919, started to organize rapidly and started to work to prevent Eastern Anatolia from being given to Armenia by establishing relations with the surrounding provinces, especially Trabzon.

On the other hand, Trabzon Defense Law, which was established in Trabzon with the fear that the city of Trabzon would be given to the Greeks, decided to convene a provincial congress in Erzurum.

While these developments were taking place in Erzurum, Mustafa Kemal Pasha was invited to the Erzurum Congress to be convened by the society and Kazım Karabekir Pasha. On the other hand, the Istanbul Government learned about Mustafa Kemal Pasha's work in Havza and Amasya and was inviting him to Istanbul. In the Amasya Circular, the place of the congress to be held in order to ensure national unity was determined as Sivas. However, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who accepted the invitation of Erzurum, left Amasya on 25 June for the congress to be held on 10 July on behalf of the Eastern Provinces.

Meanwhile, the Istanbul Government applied for a new obstruction through Ali Galip, who was appointed to the Governorship of Elaziz. Internal Affairs Nazın Ali Kemal Bey, 55 with an order he sent to Anatolia, demanded that Mustafa Kemal Pasha be arrested and sent to Istanbul.

In Sivas, these days, on the one hand, is Halit Bey, Sivas Provincial Chairman of the Freedom and Entente Party, who wants the unconditional and unconditional implementation of the orders of the Istanbul Government. On the other hand, Rasim Bey, who defended the National Struggle. On the one hand, Ali Galip, who was eager to have Mustafa Kemal Pasha arrested, on the other hand, İbrahim Tali Bey, who prepared the environment for the execution of Mustafa Kemal Pasha's orders, and Governor Raşit Pasha, who was the target of all these National Struggle supporters and counterarms. All of them were in an uneasy state before Mustafa Kemal Pasha came to Sivas.

Governor Reşit Pasha also received the following telegram from the Minister of Internal Affairs, Ali Kemal, on 23 June 1919, the day after Mustafa Kemal Pasha sent the notification from Amasya:

“Although Mustafa Kemal Pasha was a great soldier and truly patriotic... he never succeeded in his civil service. He was dismissed at the request and insistence of the British Extraordinary Representative Office, and after he was dismissed, he showed these faults more with what he did and wrote. he cares is not to waste any of his demands related to the government...” 56

The Governor Reşit Pasha, who was stuck between two telegrams, was confused about what to do. Mustafa Kemal Pasha decided to convene a congress in his own province and did not hesitate to announce it to all sides. The Ministry of Internal Affairs, to which he was affiliated, forbade him to come into contact with Mustafa Kemal Pasha.

The above telegram of the Ministry of Internal Affairs dated 23 June was heard in Sivas in a short time. In particular, the Freedom and Entente Party affixed two stickers on the walls, announcing the dismissal of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, on 24 June. However, despite all the searches, those who stuck them could not be found, and they could not be found on the labels. These were either removed by those who adhered to it, or by those who contacted İbrahim Tali or Rasim Bey and accepted help to Mustafa Kemal Pasha.57

In addition to these efforts of Hürriyet and the Allies, the Elaziz Governor Ali Galip in Sivas was pressing the Governor Reşit Pasha for the arrest of Mustafa Kemal Pasha. On June 25, İbrahim Tali Bey reported the situation to Mustafa Kemal Pasha in Amasya with the password. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who received the password, departed from Amasya to Tokat on 26 June without informing anyone. “As soon as I arrived in Tokat, I had the telegraph office under control and ensured that my arrival was not reported to Sivas or to any party. I spent 26-27 nights there. I moved to Sivas on the 27th. Sivas is about six hours from Tokat by car. I sent a clear telegram to the Governor of Sivas that I was moving from Tokat to Sivas. I used my title of army inspector in the signature. I had purposefully recorded my departure time in the telegram. However, I had measures taken to ensure that this telegram was sent six hours after my departure and that no information had been given to Sivas until then. “58

While these were happening in Tokat, there were also fierce discussions in the room of Governor Reşit Pasha in Sivas. These discussions take place in detail in the memoirs of Governor Reşit Pasha.

“... One december started to revolve around the capture of the 3rd Army Inspector. Ali Kemal was forgotten and only this issue was discussed. I did not miss this opportunity, I took a serious attitude again as I did in our previous meeting, I asked Ali Galip Bey:

what the fuck?

As he sprang up as if a sack had been stung in his most sensitive part, I added:

And with what force!

Again, there was a voice coming from every head. The voice of the Elaziz Governor was circulating on the highest pitch. The Hurriyet and Entente governor, who could not sit still with his anger, made some ridiculous gestures to me, giving me advice, warnings, threats, and sometimes he collected himself and made requests. He was explaining that even the chair in the current could be tempted to do this job by feeling hijab and taking action.

I took advantage of his brief silence. I had a clear question like this:

You said the other day that within the boundaries of my province, I will not tolerate it, I will do this job. If I put you in my place by claiming that I am sick, would you try to make your dream come true here too?

The man shouted with all the strength of his dagger:

I swear I will do what I say, I will do it, I will make a parol donor.

Halit Bey jumped up as if he was afraid of losing the honor of a great political success:

“Governor of Harput,” he said, stand aside. Even I do this job. Only you authorize me with a small compass. Don't think about the top."

Although Governor Reşit Pasha, who explained the current situation with examples from Ottoman history, said that one should remain calm and that no more wounds should be inflicted on the homeland, his interlocutors did not listen to him. Here it is:

“Sivas central telegraph manager came into the room in a violet-purple form and handed me the following telegram, which he was holding tightly with his trembling hands:

To His Excellency Resit Pasha, Governor of Sivas

Now, I would like to submit that there is a direct departure from Tokat to Sivas, and that I am sincerely specialized because the possibility of success with their own states is about to occur and to accrue.

Third Army Inspector

Mustafa Kemal

Receiving this unexpected news, the Governor handed the telegram to Ali Galip Bey after reading it again.

“Here you go, I said, read it. Then get up, gear up, catch the Third Army Inspector.

I cannot describe how Ali Galip's eyes, which were closed to the telegram, opened with a change, how his color turned yellow, and how his lips trembled. Halit Bey, who snatched and reviewed the telegram casually but hastily, was in the same situation as his and was truly ridiculous. I frowned to show resentment at this two-footed politician who's been bothering me for a long time:

Sir, I said, you are not saying anything. In three or four hours, Mustafa Kemal Pasha will be in Sivas. Why are you sitting here, do what you think!

Embarrassed and distressed, Ali Galip took another look at the telegram, then shuddered, began to examine the lines with astonishment and attention, and looked at his watch.

He is not coming, he is not coming, he said, he came and almost entered Sivas. Because six hours have passed since the time of the drawing of the telegram!

I was not aware of this loss. I took the telegram and examined it; I understood that the Elaziz Governor had hit the mark in his discovery, and I replied.

I'm going to meet the Pasha. If you wish, arrest him with the force that Halit Bey will provide.

Ali Galip Bey raised his head as if waking up from a blunder:

If we had met him in Harput, I would have done exactly what I said. However, the responsibility here lies with you!..

I said seriously, I was going to bring Mustafa Kemal Pasha to the future. However, we had no preparations because we did not anticipate that he would come to Sivas, even though we knew that a congress would be opened in Erzurum, or because the events took us by surprise. According to the time record in the telegram, there was no time to send news to this and that. For this reason, I only invited İbrahim Tali Bey and showed him the telegram. He simply asked in a way that made him feel that he had the news:

Will you go to the future?

Of course. It is only necessary to gain some time in order to inform the provincial officials of the arrival of the Pasha and to take them to the future. I beg you very much. Please visit the Sample Farm. If Mustafa Kemal Pasha has not arrived there yet, wait for him and make sure that they rest on the farm until we arrive. It would be a shame if we didn't come to the future collectively...”

The Governor, who gave the necessary orders to the relevant people, had learned when Mustafa Kemal Pasha left those centers by talking to the Governor of Tokat and the District Governor of Yıldızeli by telegraph. The Governor, who guessed that the Pasha was approaching the Numune Farm located at the entrance of Sivas, got into his car and moved to meet the Pasha.

“... When I reached the front of the farm, I found Pasha ready to get into the cars with his companions. However, the Pasha had to stay at the farm for at least an hour in order to prepare for those behind, to find a car and horse and to give them the opportunity to go to the future.

For this reason, I immediately got out of the car and greeted Pasha, who was nothing but a genius in human form, with a heartfelt love and respect:

I said welcome, but you are in a hurry to go to the city, wouldn't you deign to drink our teak coffee here?

How hard could the genius, who wants to make his wrath be felt, speak harshly?... Mustafa Kemal Pasha answered this supplication, which I offered with the purest reverence, in a voice that shocked the understanding:

No no. No need for coffee. We will act immediately. And showing me his car, he added: Come in with me.

I would be honored to be side by side with him, and I would gain benefits, which could be useful for determining my position. However, I wanted to object, not finding it gracious that the former Naval Minister Rauf Bey, who had been accompanying Pasha in the car since Amasya, remained behind.

Rauf Bey, I said, I do not want to separate you from your person. With your permission, let me get in my own car.

No, come with me!

His voice was so dominant that I recklessly broke my neck and grudgingly walked in his footsteps and got into his car. We were in the position of a soldier and a commander-in-chief. I saw such a great distance between myself and him. Of course, I was also happy and proud. I was proud that Pasha insisted on inviting me to his side. But this joy did not last long, and it quickly became clear that the Pasha took me in his car, not for compliments, but for the clearing of heavy doubt.

Of course, I would like to record this fact, which was one of the most painful moments of my life: When the car moved towards the city, I had the desire to say something and make Pasha say, with the force of the joy that filled me:

I hope, I said, your journey went well!

He looked deep into my face as if he wanted to read my soul, and answered in a voice that would make the most stubborn minds confess every secret:

You leave that and tell about the preparations made in Sivas: How many people did you find to arrest me and where did you ambush them?

“Oh my Pasha, what kind of word is that?” I was too shocked to find any other response than to say, and I was overwhelmed by the torment that this heavy guilt and impeachment made my soul feel.

He understood my suffering, and after he excited my understanding with a smile that appeared in his eyes -without breaking his seriousness- he told:

I am aware of your arguments with Ali Galip. However, I suspected that you had appointed İbrahim Tali Bey to keep me in the Numune Farm, and that you had personally made the same offer, and I thought that Ali Galip had made you fit as well. It's because of this doubt that I got you into my car. You are like a hostage to me. If there is an ambush, it is certain that you will fall victim, perhaps before me!

My eyes were watering. He added with a smile:

Prudence is a good thing. I recommend it to you and I want you to remember this adventure.” 59

The owner of these memories, Governor Reşit Pasha, died before he read Mustafa Kemal Pasha's Speech. To prove how honestly he recorded his memories, let's look at Mustafa Kemal Pasha's lines from the Nutuk that refer to these events.

“... Now, Gentlemen, let's turn our eyes back to the painting you left in Sivas:

To the scene of the dispute between Ali Galip Bey and Reşit Pasha about the treatment to be taken against me... At a stage when the argument is heating up, they handed Reşit Pasha my telegram from Tokat. Reşit Pasha hands it to Ali Galip Bey immediately. "Here he is coming, here you go, arrest him!" says. When Reşit Pasha saw the departure time written in the telegram, he immediately took out his own watch, looked at it.... He added, "My master is not coming, he will have arrived."

Upon this, when Ali Galip said, “If I said I will withhold, I meant to say that if it is in my province, I will withhold it”, the people in the meeting become excited... They all end the meeting by saying, "Come on then, let's go to meet him."

However, notables, dignitaries, people and soldiers thought that it was necessary to buy some time in order to prepare a bright welcoming ceremony, but considering that I might have approached the gates of Sivas city by calculation, they decided to give me a rest at Ziraat Numune Çiftliği, which is close to the entrance of the city. they thought. The Governor Pasha, who was the head of the medical staff of my headquarters, invited Tali Bey, whom I had previously sent to Sivas for the organization, and asked him to fulfill this duty and said that he would join us as soon as the preparations were finished.

Indeed, just around the Sample Farm, Tali Bey appeared from inside a car we came across. We got out of the cars and sat in the courtyard of the farm. When Mr. Tali explained in detail the situation I had described and said that it was his duty to keep me busy here, I immediately stood up and said, "Quickly, to the cars and to Sivas"!

Let me explain why. What came to my mind at that moment was this: They might have deceived Tali Bey because we were going to hold a welcoming ceremony, and in reality they might have wanted to buy time to make a contrary arrangement. As we were about to get into the cars, another car approached us from Sivas. There was Vali Pasha in it.

Reşit Pasha said, "Sir, can't you rest for a few more minutes?" he began to speak.

“I don't need rest even for half a minute. We will act immediately and you come to me," I said.

Sir, he said, "Let Rauf Bey ride with you, I'll come with the car behind you."

No, I said no, you here...

The purpose of this simple precaution does not need explanation.” 60

Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who entered the city with the enthusiastic demonstrations of the people of Sivas, also gives place to this event in Nutuk.

“... As we entered the city of Sivas, both sides of the street were filled with large crowds and the military units were in a ceremonial order. We got out of the cars, walked and greeted the military and the people.

This scene was a living witness that proved how much and full of love the venerable people of Sivas and our heroic officers and soldiers in Sivas were to me...”61

After many unfortunate days, Sivas of that day, at least, finds a breeze of its sovereignty, which it thought lost, at least in this way, with flags hanging everywhere, pouring into the roads, a commander's passing with the steps of soldiers. With every step, a cry rises into the sky.

Long live Mustafa Kemal Pasha!

Mustafa Kemal Pasha got out of his car at the beginning of the first ranks. On one side, Sivas Governor Reşit Pasha walks a little dull but respectfully. On the other hand, Rauf Bey, then the Mayor, behind the Headquarters of the Army Inspectorate, the soldiers and civilian representatives of Sivas, and some men who always like to appear in the front in such cases...

The Pasha passes by greeting the people and the military. The heavens ring:

Long live Mustafa Kemal Pasha!

On the walls of the bazaar, where the people were lined up for two nights in front of them, the declarations made by cowards and slaves against Mustafa Kemal can still be seen. But now: no one looks at them. Those who pasted them there, read them and told them to the public and were arrogant, now mingled with the people. They're pissed. Or they often follow the people around them; They shout “Hurray!” and applaud the passenger who comes from afar.

The winds of hope, festivity and self-discovery of the people suddenly shake the air of Sivas. It is as if these people regained their sovereignty there that day.

Istanbul was defeated by Sivas for the first time that day. The order of the Minister of Internal Affairs of Istanbul was torn down for the first time that day. Mustafa Kemal Pasha openly rebelled for the first time that day and there: Relying on what? None! Just for himself and also for his premonitions for the people, for the army.”62

Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who went directly to the Third Corps Command building, gave the following order to an officer:

“Find the Governor of Harput Ali Galip and the people he brought with him from Istanbul immediately, bring them here!

The end of the event is worthy of an example, let me explain:

Ali Galip Bey, together with the officers he brought with him, was almost brought before Mustafa Kemal Pasha. Pasha accepted them with a frown and a sullen face.

He kept him standing for a while, then ordered them to sit down and gave a heavy speech of repentance by addressing Ali Galip. Words were no different from sille. But this embarrassing, devastating speech was not simply a barrage of insults. Ali Galib's attempt to run water under straw by sitting in Sivas for days was depicted "vulgarly" and, although he was both alone and insulting, it included guiding light on the nature, goal and holiness of the national movement by creating astonishing relations.

The cat that had spilled milk could have been thought of as a lion cub compared to Ali Galip Bey's condition at that time. The unfortunate man was so devastated, he was sweating and swallowing. Mustafa Kemal Pasha continued his harsh speech for perhaps twenty minutes. Then he threw a large-grained tasbih, which he was holding in his hand, on the coffee table beside him:

Soldiers, he said, would be brave. The Turkish soldier, on the other hand, becomes more brave and very brave than the soldiers. Are you an exception to this rule accepted by the world? Or, by leaving the army, did you deviate from all the values ​​peculiar to the Turkish soldier? What is this you do? To whom and whom do you serve, or to whom and whom do you betray? Have you ever thought?

Ali Galip Bey wanted to say a few words, but Mustafa Kemal Pasha did not allow and tolerate, he stood up angrily:

He said to you, I could have treated you more harshly: I respect your being a good soldier and am satisfied with this much. So much so that if you do not make up your mind, do not know your place, and do not cut your tongue, your fate will be dire. Come on, go to your place. Think deeply. Decide whether to go to Harput or return to Istanbul. But do not forget that the whistle of people like you and your masters cannot be blown in Anatolia.”63

The governor, who guessed that Ali Galip Bey would take his suitcases and return to Istanbul the next day, found him visiting Mustafa Kemal Pasha on the night of the same day.

“I don't know what Mr. Ali Galip said or what attitudes he took. I learned that only Pasha - after a long fight - allowed him to go to Harput and start work. As a matter of fact, the next morning, while Mustafa Kemal Pasha was setting out in the direction of Erzincan, Ali Galip Bey had also set off towards Malatya.”64

Mustafa Kemal Pasha describes this event in his Nutuk as follows:

“I immediately brought Ali Galib with his entourage and the mischief-makers, whom I understood to be his henchmen. I don't want to prolong the details, which I don't doubt cause enough fatigue by telling them how I treated them.

I'll just make one point.

Gentlemen, this Ali Galip wanted to come to me alone at night, informing me that he had some secret things to say after his ill-treatment. I agreed. By requesting that we should not care about the appearance of his movements, he accepted the province of Elazig and tried to explain and prove with evidence that his purpose of coming was to serve my ideas and the reason for his stay in Sivas was to see me and get instructions personally. I must admit that he succeeded by keeping us entertained until morning.”

After Mustafa Kemal Pasha gave the necessary lesson to Ali Galip, he showed his desire to meet and have a good time with the "Oriental Vilayetleri Müdafaa-i Hukuk-u Milliye Cemiyeti" Administrative Committee and the notables of Sivas.

In this meeting, where the Governor Reşit Pasha was also present in the military office where Pasha was a guest, Mustafa Kemal Pasha explained his opinions about the situation of the country, the purpose and purpose of coming to Anatolia, the work to be done, the result, by referring to the occupations in Anatolia; “... In the face of this disastrous situation, which has no precedent in our history, it is necessary to eliminate all kinds of political and personal conflicts and feelings with all the children of the country, and to unite under a single name with various societies and rules and to start actual resistance against these occupations and invasions. This will be possible by representing and concentrating the national will in the congress that will be gathered from the regions of our eastern provinces, first in Erzurum, which is far from the occupation and influence of the enemy, and then in the general congress that we will gather here (in Sivas) with the delegates from all over the country.

There may be a question varid here. You will say that we were defeated even though we were allied with Germany, the most powerful military state in the world, and with Austria, Hungary, one of the great powers of Europe, and Bulgaria from the Balkan States, that is, with four states. How is it possible to be successful this time against our victorious opponents by taking up arms again for resistance on this road, while we are completely overwhelmed and exhausted this time alone?

In response to this, I can tell you that the current internal and military situations are never suitable for the great powers of our enemies to engage in a struggle and war all over again with the dispatch of armies against us. You need to be sure of this.

The only force and weapon they will use against our resistance is the Greek army. On the one hand, if we occupy the enemy for a few months with guerrilla and gang warfare, on the other hand, if we establish a regular front with the arrangement and reinforcement of our army from the beginning, we will overcome the Greek army's right, albeit a little late. This result will ensure our presence and absolute independence within our national borders. I express to the great armies that we can do this.

If we do not do this, there should be no doubt that no region will be left in our homeland to live independently and independently. In a period of more than six hundred years, we lived independently and dominated. If you say that we cannot tolerate slavery and misery, we will work together to achieve this goal. I repeat, I have absolute faith that we will succeed. Make sure you do. If; We have become weak and tired from the war that has been going on for many years. If you say that we have no need to act on this path anymore, whether the British come, the French come, leave us to ourselves no matter what, then there will be nothing for me to do.”65

This speech of Mustafa Kemal Pasha gave great hope to those present at the meeting, and he was told that he would work with full faith on the path shown and that no sacrifice would be spared. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who was touched by this, gave some directives to Rasim Bey about his working style, meanwhile, he advised and recommended that the two people to be sent as Sivas delegates should be set out immediately, without paying much attention to their personalities.66

Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who also included this meeting in Nutuk, describes the event as follows:

“After giving instructions to those who needed it about the organization and course of action in Sivas, on the morning of the night of 27-28, which passed without sleep, on a feast day, they set out from Sivas to Erzurum.” 67

SECOND ARREST (2 September -16 October 1919)

The Erzurum Congress, which was convened for the problems of Eastern Anatolia, became a national congress with the decisions taken as a result of the participation of Mustafa Kemal Pasha. Military and civilian intellectuals, people from various segments of society came together for the first time in Erzurum on behalf of the entire nation and for a national purpose. Ord. prof. As Enver Ziya Karal stated, the decisions made by the congress stated that the homeland cannot be a homeland outside the national borders. It was announced that no privileges would be granted for independence. By electing a delegation to carry out all the decisions, he expressed his intention and belief in establishing a national government in Anatolia, which is the executive power of a national state.68

Erzurum Congress concluded successfully and its echoes were also heard in Sivas. Now it was the turn of the Sivas Congress, and its preparations were continuing. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who sent the Sivas delegates off to Ilıca, out of Erzurum, said that the delegates who came to attend the congress should be taken from the inns and hotels and hosted in appropriate places. The people of Sivas acted accordingly.

Finally, in August, it was seen that some representatives from all sides moved to Sivas and some of them started to come to Sivas. In fact, some of the representatives who came from Erzurum began to ask when to move to Sivas. Now it was necessary to leave Erzurum. Pasha;

“We must leave Erzurum on 29 August,” he ordered.

Pasha is very excited. If possible, he would fly to Sivas like a bird to gather the congress immediately. However, various impossibilities, negative activities, limited means of transport did not allow the congress to convene before the determined day. Even being able to convene the congress one day would certainly be a great chance and success.69

Considering all this, the danger was taken and the journey started again. The dangerous straits between Erzurum and Sivas had been crossed without any incident.70 Finally, the good news of coming had mobilized all Sivas at once. Captain İbrahim Bey, the Commander of the Police Station at that time, narrates one of his memories as follows.

“I was the Sivas Central Police Station Commander. One morning, the Battalion Commander wants you, they said. I went right away. Ali Şefik Bey gave the following order:

Take arrangements to prevent Mustafa Kemal Pasha from being raped from Sivas to Hafik.

I immediately came to the company and, remembering an order a few months ago, immediately went to the Battalion Commander.

I said, "How can we arrange an arrangement even though there is an order for the deceased and deceased loved ones?" laughing;

Whether that order stays in place, the importance of the real work lies in this. He said, "Don't say things like that, you take your gear." 71

Waking up at dawn on Tuesday morning, September 2, 1919, Sivas was experiencing one of the happiest days in history with great joy. There was a general fusion in the city, the lights of happy joy on everyone's faces.

All the phaetons and springboats in the city were dedicated to this work. Except for the members of the Freedom and Entente Party at that time, all the notables of the city, who closed their shops, participated in this welcome. The excitement that gathered hearts to the lips was embodied in these two words: “Mustafa Kemal Pasha is coming today.” Tents were expected to be set up five kilometers from the city. 72

While people were talking from ear to ear at Lider Tepe: "He has departed from Hafik, he is approaching, he will come now," a car advancing towards Sivas on the crooked roads of Seyfebeli was either disappearing or coming out. The expected began to appear. The doctor of a dying nation was approaching at full speed. The car stopped right at the top. Everyone ran.

"Welcome, welcome"

they said, kissing and squeezing his hand. Sheik Fevzi Efendi, Hodja Raif Efendi and Rauf Bey got out of the car next to him.73 They shook the hands of those who came to welcome them. Among those who welcomed were Sivas Corps Commander Selahattin, Sivas Defense-i Law Chief Rasim (Basara), and Sivas Mufti Abdurrauf Efendi.74 Pasha was wearing a gray hunting suit, a cap on his head and a medal of merit on his chest. Pasha and his friends, who greeted the thousands of people who had rushed to greet this hero by closing his shop, got into the cars again and entered Sivas in the time of the group.75

The people of Sivas were lined up on both sides of the street. They greeted him with applause and with their voices: "Welcome Pasha," with sincere devotion and faith. He was sent off with the same enthusiasm until the sultani building, which was allocated to the congress, by car. Governor Reşit Pasha was at the sultan's door. Here he met Pasha and said:

“Welcome, Pasha,” he said, and left.

The governor also describes the welcoming event in detail in his memoirs: "... Would I attend the ceremony or not?" 77, and in his own words, he would draw the attention of the Pasha if he left the herd, and of the central government if he joined the herd. After some thought, he decided to take the following decision: “... To appear among the people who will rise to the future, since I would have offended the Sublime Porte if I participated in the future ceremony as the governor. However, not meeting great-spirited people like Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his friends, who devoted their lives to the good and safety of the country, and to rise to the future in order to get rid of the torment and hijab of being small.” 78 As a matter of fact, the Governor had come to the future as he had planned.79

The 80 places in Sivas Sultanisi prepared for the congress were divided as follows. When you enter through the door, the room on the left and at the beginning was reserved for a person named Mazlum, who was in charge of security. Again, following the left side corridor and beyond the stairs, the large room was prepared as a dining hall. Other rooms were allocated to his servant, pantry and so on. When you go up the big double wooden staircase, the first room on the right was reserved for Mustafa Kemal. A beautiful bedding was placed in this room, as well as an armchair and chairs. The great hall next to it was dedicated to the Congress, and just as the lectern was prepared, chairs were lined up for the members other than the school desks. The room following the congress hall was also prepared for Rauf Bey. The large classroom at the end of the stairs and in the corner was also allocated to the Pasha's entourage officers. A large room near this room was reserved for İbrahim Süreyya Bey and Mazhar Müfit. The room opposite the stairs was also prepared for Hüsrev and doctor Refik Bey.81

A single protective field gun used by the soldiers of the corps commander Selahattin Bey was placed in the garden of the congress building. Again, he was under protection with the gendarmerie.82

The Sivas Congress, which was the great Turkish Renaissance, revolution and liberation congress83 of the national history, would be the result of the need to gather all forces in one hand, and the beginning of the consciousness of the National Struggle. The Sivas Congress would be of great importance in terms of guiding this headless organization and the indecisive armed struggle and taking command and command to maintain order.

The Congress would begin its work on September 4, 1919. The people of Sivas, who welcomed Mustafa Kemal Pasha with enthusiastic cheers, had filled the roads leading to the Sultaniye, where the congress would be held, from thirteen o'clock on the day of the congress. The fact that the day was Thursday was also considered a good luck, and everyone who left the prayer and quit their job came to the congress building. Congress delegates came one by one and entered the building.84

The congress opened at fourteen with the opening speech of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who was temporarily in the presidency. In his opening speech, the Pasha referred to all the events from the signing of the Armistice of Mudros to the Sivas Congress and said, “The Sivas Congress will lay down the principles that will take the decisions that duly demonstrate and prove that our country and our nation are an indivisible whole...”85.

I will be content with giving the main outlines of the congress work without going into details. Because there is a detailed work on this subject.86 In the first day's session, the issue of presidency was put on the agenda. İsmail Fazıl Pasha proposed that the presidency be sequentially for one day or one week, and to be made in alphabetical order according to the initials of the members or the names of the provinces and sanjaks represented. 87 The interesting thing is that the name of the province represented by İsmail Fazıl Pasha, who made this proposal, started with elif, and the first letter of his name started with elif. His proposal was rejected and Mustafa Kemal Pasha was elected as the chairman of the congress with a secret ballot. 88 On the same day, a declaration addressed to the nation was also issued.89

The agenda of the Sivas Congress would be the text of the regulation and declaration of the Erzurum Congress and the memorandum prepared by about twenty-five members who had come to Sivas before. Only the first three days were spent preparing the oath formula to prove that the members were not Unionists, writing a complaint to the sultan, answering the telegrams that came about the opening of the congress, and especially discussing whether the congress would deal with politics or not. 90 Finally, the formula for the oath, which was read by all the delegates one by one, was prepared. In addition, a letter was written to the sultan. 91 Finally, on the fourth day of the congress, the main topic was discussed and the Erzurum Congress Regulation text was discussed and accepted as a result of some changes on the same day. These:

1. The name of the society was “Anatolian Defense of Law Society”. It became the "Anatolian and Rumelian Defense of Law Society".

2. Instead of the entry “The Representative Committee represents the whole of Eastern Anatolia”, it was stated that “The Representative Committee represents the whole country”. Six more people have been added to existing members.

Instead of "the principle of total defense and resistance has been accepted, since all kinds of occupations and interventions will be deemed to have been carried out with the aim of establishing Greekness and Armenianness", it was stated that "the principle of total defense and resistance has been accepted in the rejection of all kinds of occupation and intervention, and especially of movements aiming to establish Greekness and Armenianness". .

4. In the article “Determining and determining the administrative, political and military measures to be taken in case it is understood that the Ottoman Government had to leave and take care of these places (ie the Eastern provinces) in the face of pressure from foreign states”, instead of “leaving any part of the homeland and not being interested” in the article “here” A wider record was made in the form of 92

On September 8, the motion requesting an "American Mandate", prepared by İsmail Hami Bey and signed by 25 delegates, was put on the agenda. Although an article such as “Mandate and protection cannot be accepted” was included in the Erzurum Congress, this issue was brought to the agenda again by finding a large supporter in the Sivas Congress. Let's look at the issue of the "Mandate", which is a humiliating situation like being under the control of another country, which can collapse a national war in itself. Britain and France, the victors of World War I, were dividing the Middle East between them, taking advantage of the absence of Russia. To find a cover for this, at the Paris Peace Conference, it was decided that Britain and France should fulfill this task, since the Middle East countries could not govern themselves. The president of the United States, who had published his 14-point principles, accepted this on the condition that it would not conflict with America's interests. Syria and Lebanon were left to the French, Iraq and Palestine to the British mandate. An American mandate was considered for Armenia. At this time, some people in Turkey began to make efforts to secure an American mandate within Turkey. In July and August 1919, the telegrams of Kara Vasıf and later Halide Edip and Bekir Sami stating their suggestions on this subject were rejected by Mustafa Kemal Pasha. These people claimed that America is the greatest democracy in the world that maintains human values, and that thanks to America, Turkey will also be saved, civilized and self-governed. In her letter dated 10 August, Ms. Halide Edip said,

The mandate issue was now on the agenda of the Sivas Congress by finding a big supporter. Finding such a large supporter made Mustafa Kemal Pasha very sad. Even those who signed the Amasya Circular, such as Rauf and Refet Bey, were now supporting this proposal. Kara Vasıf Bey, who came from Istanbul, was very effective in this regard. Then they brought an American journalist. The supporters of the "Mandate" showed great interest and respect to this journalist named Browne. We can summarize these views of the people known as Mandaists from their letters and congress minutes as follows: “In the twentieth century, it is impossible for a tribe with a debt of 50 million liras, a ruined country, a poorly fertile land, and an income of only 10-15 million lira, to live without external protection. Our financial situation is not suitable for independent living. Free, What can we do without an army? They are flying in the air by plane, we can't get rid of the ox cart yet... Even if we save our independence today, they will still share us one day. If Izmir remained in Greece and a war broke out between us, which train could we take from Erzurum, even though our enemy would bring soldiers from Greece by ship? Let's just say that we want complete independence, external and internal. But can we do it on our own? Can't we? Before that, I wonder if they will leave us alone or not?41 After a controversial session, Rauf Bey's proposal, which envisaged a telegram to be sent to the 95th American Congress to request a “Mandate”, was accepted on 9 September. 96 The telegram was sent to the American Journalist Mr. Immediate transmission through Browne was adopted. 97 It is very interesting that the relations between the mandate group and Mustafa Kemal Pasha were formed in the same way during the proclamation of the Republic and the abolition of the sultanate and caliphate, and they wanted to prevent him. Against these ideas of the Mandates, Mustafa Kemal Pasha responded with the motto "Either independence or death" for full independence. Whether there is money or not, the army will definitely exist. While the enemy will carry soldiers and ammunition by ship and truck, the Turkish nation will carry ammunition with its oxcart, on its back, and the soldiers will go to the front on foot, often half-naked and half-starved. There will be no medicine for the wounded, for the sick, but the Turkish nation will win this war under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, despite all these difficulties. Again on the same day, that is, on September 9, the congress committee decided to appoint Ali Fuat Pasha to the “West Anatolian General Forces Command”.98 Whether there is money or not, the army will definitely exist. While the enemy will carry soldiers and ammunition by ship and truck, the Turkish nation will carry ammunition with its oxcart, on its back, and the soldiers will go to the front on foot, often half-naked and half-starved. There will be no medicine for the wounded, for the sick, but the Turkish nation will win this war under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, despite all these difficulties. Again on the same day, that is, on September 9, the congress committee decided to appoint Ali Fuat Pasha to the “West Anatolian General Forces Command”.98 Whether there is money or not, the army will definitely exist. While the enemy will carry soldiers and ammunition by ship and truck, the Turkish nation will carry ammunition with its oxcart, on its back, and the soldiers will go to the front on foot, often half-naked and half-starved. There will be no medicine for the wounded, for the sick, but the Turkish nation will win this war under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, despite all these difficulties. Again on the same day, that is, on September 9, the congress committee decided to appoint Ali Fuat Pasha to the “West Anatolian General Forces Command”.98 but the Turkish nation will win this war under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha despite all these difficulties. Again on the same day, that is, on September 9, the congress committee decided to appoint Ali Fuat Pasha to the “West Anatolian General Forces Command”.98 but the Turkish nation will win this war under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha despite all these difficulties. Again on the same day, that is, on September 9, the congress committee decided to appoint Ali Fuat Pasha to the “West Anatolian General Forces Command”.98

Meanwhile, in a telegram from Trabzon, they stated that they were against the Sivas Congress being a general congress and electing a Representative Committee. Similar news came from Erzurum, it was said that Mustafa Kemal Pasha wanted to overthrow the Sultan and overtake him, and that he had already started the dictatorship.99

Added to this type of news was the news that the Governor of Elazig, Ali Galip, would provide the help of the British and press the congress. This event was a joint initiative of the sultan, the government and the British, whose purpose was to prevent the Sivas Congress and thus to strangle the national movement from the very beginning. This is how it turned out. The teacher named Aliye Hanım, friend of Sivas Governor Reşit Pasha's wife, in a telegram he sent to the governor from Konya: “I read in a newspaper today that you were dismissed. If so, I will not come to Sivas”. When the governor received this telegram, he went to the congress building and showed it to Mustafa Kemal Pasha. Thereupon, Mustafa Kemal Pasha sent some of the officers in his entourage to the telegraph office and told them to come and take whatever communication documents they had. In this way, his communications with Harbiye Nazın Süleyman Şefik and Ali Galip Bey were fully and clearly captured from Istanbul. From this battle, which seems to have been going on for seven or eight days, it was understood that the Istanbul Government wanted to suppress the Sivas Congress against Ali Galib and capture the representatives. had to flee.

Despite the attempts of the Elazig Governor Ali Galib, who took action as a result of the work of the mandates in the congress on the one hand, and Trabzon's opposition against Trabzon on the one hand, and the provocation of the Istanbul Government and the British on the other, the congress successfully completed its work. On September 11, the Sivas Congress Declaration was published. 101 This declaration, which was sent to the country and abroad, was very effective.

Despite all the external and internal difficulties, the Sivas Congress was a turning point in Turkish history. The Sivas Congress laid the foundation of the move that brought the national revolution, war, liberation, revolution and republican period in the name of the unity of the homeland. To take the nation's own destiny into its own hands in the face of the helplessness of the nation meant the victory of the effort. The first newspaper of the revolution, “İrade-i Milliye”, was published in Sivas.103 The mandate issue, which was a proposal to live under the control of a foreign state, was not on the agenda again. Mustafa Kemal Pasha's motto “Either Independence or Death” became widespread and adopted as a basic principle after that. It was here that it became certain that the Turkish nation would live as an honorable and honorable nation and that this could only be achieved with full independence. The principles of our national borders were determined here. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who asked the American journalist, "What if you can't succeed," replied: "A nation succeeds after making attempts and sacrifices that go beyond the boundaries of thought in order to ensure its existence and independence. What if he doesn't succeed means deciding that that nation will be dead."

With the decisions of the Sivas Congress, the decisions taken in Erzurum were approved. All Defense of Law Societies were united under the name of “Anatolian and Rumelian Defense of the Law Society” and the Representative Committee became valid for the whole country. All civil and military forces began to be placed under one authority and the authority of the Istanbul Government was given superiority. Western Anatolia was also attached to this authority. Ali Fuat Pasha was appointed to the "General National Forces Command" to cover the entire Kuva-i Milliye. Thanks to the success of Mustafa Kemal Pasha in the Sivas Congress in uniting and connecting all the individuals and thoughts of the nation to the national will, the will of the sultan was being destroyed and the principle of national sovereignty was coming. Thus, besides national independence, national sovereignty was inevitably realized gradually.

The meeting of the Sivas Congress and its decisions concerning the whole country did not delay in making great repercussions at home and abroad. The spirit of Kuva-i Milliye began to spread rapidly throughout the country. Although the Western states described this event as a revolt against the state, it began to be understood in their own public opinion that this movement was a national cause. However, the Istanbul Government evaluated this congress as an illegitimate rebellion. Grand Vizier Damat Ferit Pasha; “What is the nature of the action performed by a French newspaper reporter, Mustafa Kemal Pasha?” to the question:

“This movement has no military form and is not based on the essential part of the nation. Those who are trying to perform this movement are some young people who were officers during the war and today spread beyond and around Anatolia to practice any art. This movement is like an extinguished chaff fire…” It was claimed that Unionism and Bolshevikism were practiced in Anatolia. While the articles in the Istanbul press described those who waged the national war as dreamers, they claimed that the real salvation of the country could only be achieved through politics.106

As of September 13, the delegates attending the congress began to return to their places. Heyet-i Temsiliye remained in Sivas and continued to work in the period after the departure of the delegates. Intelligent-minded patriots and popular communities with strong national ties, who believed that the fate of the country could be directed in a good direction by appropriating the idea of ​​the National Struggle, adopted the decisions taken at the Sivas Congress. Right after the end of the congress, on September 12, all telegraphic and postal communication and transportation between the Anatolian and Istanbul Government was cut off. Although reluctantly, the provinces of Sivas, Erzurum and Elazığ followed suit. But Trabzon, Kastamonu, Ankara, Konya and many other provinces immediately started a counter-resistance. A short time later, connections were established with other provinces. Mr. brownie, In a telegram he sent to the Chicago Dail News he said: “I have never seen a functioning telegraph network as well as I saw tonight. Within half an hour, Erzurum, Erzincan, Mosul, Diyarbakir, Samsun, Trabzon, Ankara, Malatya, Harput, Konya and Bursa were all in communication with each other. Mustafa Kemal was sitting on one end of the wire reaching all these places, and the military and civil administrators of these cities and towns were on the other end. The situation was explained to them as it was, and with one exception, all Anatolia ordered Mustafa Kemal to act as he wished and to go to the end of the job. Only Konya replied that it had to remain neutral since there were Italian troops in its city.” 107 Diyarbakir, Samsun, Trabzon, Ankara, Malatya, Harput, Konya and Bursa were always in communication with each other. Mustafa Kemal was sitting on one end of the wire reaching all these places, and the military and civil administrators of these cities and towns were on the other end. The situation was explained to them as it was, and with one exception, all Anatolia ordered Mustafa Kemal to act as he wished and to go to the end of the job. Only Konya replied that it had to remain neutral since there were Italian troops in its city.” 107 Diyarbakir, Samsun, Trabzon, Ankara, Malatya, Harput, Konya and Bursa were always in communication with each other. Mustafa Kemal was sitting on one end of the wire reaching all these places, and the military and civil administrators of these cities and towns were on the other end. The situation was explained to them as it was, and with one exception, all Anatolia ordered Mustafa Kemal to act as he wished and to go to the end of the job. Only Konya replied that it had to remain neutral since there were Italian troops in its city.” 107 The situation was explained to them as it was, and with one exception, all Anatolia ordered Mustafa Kemal to act as he wished and to go to the end of the job. Only Konya replied that it had to remain neutral since there were Italian troops in its city.” 107 The situation was explained to them as it was, and with one exception, all Anatolia ordered Mustafa Kemal to act as he wished and to go to the end of the job. Only Konya replied that it had to remain neutral since there were Italian troops in its city.” 107

The breaking of Anatolia's relations with Istanbul was the first strong move in the history of the National Struggle. Because it was only with this move that it was revealed that the nation was incomparably superior in strength to the palace and its servant, the Istanbul Government. With this event, it was understood for the first time that the nation would not mind the threats made by this or that European state and would not hesitate to act according to its own aims. It was also revealed by this event that Mustafa Kemal Pasha was right to represent the nation, because the instructions he gave to the nation were applied to the letter. The Anatolian people, as well as obeying the wishes of their leader, were becoming more attached to this struggle with each passing day.

In the face of these pressures from Anatolia, the Government of Damat Ferit Pasha resigned. Thereupon, the sultan wanted Tevfik Pasha to establish the new government. When Tevfik Pasha refused, Ali Rıza Pasha was appointed as the Grand Vizier on 2 October. Ali Rıza Pasha knew the importance of the pressure of the nationalists. Mustafa Kemal Pasha promised to help Ali Rıza Pasha on condition that he respects the decisions of the Erzurum and Sivas Congresses. Despite this, Ali Rıza Pasha tried to implicitly state that there was no need for the work of the Representative Committee, claiming that there was a well-intentioned government in Istanbul. In the correspondence between Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Istanbul Government, which began on 3 October, Mustafa Kemal Pasha said that the Istanbul Government should be bound by the decision of the Erzurum and Sivas Congresses, that the government would not take important decisions until the National Assembly convened, He wanted people who had gained the trust of the Representative Committee to be sent to the peace conference, that the declarations to be published by the government would be seen by him, that the appointment procedures would be approved by the Representative Committee, and Cevat or Fevzi Pasha would be appointed as the Chief of General Staff. Against these demands, the Istanbul Government, while accepting some of these demands, wanted the Representation Committee to cooperate with them, to explain that they had no relations with the Ittihadism, that the elections would be held freely and that they would not interfere in the government's affairs. However, since all these correspondences did not yield any results, the Istanbul Government decided to send a representative to Anatolia. Salih Pasha, who made this proposal, was appointed as the representative. Upon Ali Rıza Pasha's request, a meeting in Amasya was accepted by Mustafa Kemal Pasha.

Before Mustafa Kemal Pasha went to Amasya, he asked the commanders for their opinions on domestic and foreign policy and the situation of the army. The answers he received revealed that they were incompetent in these matters and that he had to decide for himself in all matters.108

Mustafa Kemal Pasha, accompanied by Rauf and Bekir Sami Bey, arrived in Amasya on 18 October. After the arrival of Salih Pasha, negotiations began on 20 October. And the negotiations on the principles accepted by the Sivas Congress continued until October 22. The parties agreed on the following principles:

"one. Not leaving the Turkish provinces to the enemy in one way or another, not accepting any protection or mandate, protecting the integrity and independence of the Turkish homeland.

2. Not giving privileges to non-Muslim communities in a way that would disrupt the political dominance and social balance of Turkish countries.

3. The recognition of the Anatolian and Rumelian Defense of Rights Society as a legal entity by the Istanbul Government.

4. The sending of persons deemed appropriate by the Representative Committee to the conference to be held for the establishment of peace between the Entente Powers and the Ottoman State.

5. The gathering of the Ottoman Parliament in Istanbul was not appropriate in terms of security.”109

The last article, namely the provision that the Assembly would convene outside of Istanbul, was not directly accepted by the Istanbul Government on the grounds that it would be unconstitutional. Mustafa Kemal Pasha also did not insist.110

With the agreement reached in Amasya, the Istanbul Government recognized the Representative Committee. The representative of the Istanbul Government was brought to the city where the Amasya Circular was published and accepted the national will exactly three months after the circular was signed. Thus, Mustafa Kemal Pasha was showing his power to the whole country and the world in the city where he proclaimed the principle "The independence of the nation will again save the nation's determination and will".

When Mustafa Kemal Pasha came to Amasya, a man named Sheikh Recep in Sivas raided the Sivas post office with his men on the evening of 18 October, and sent a telegram to Salih Pasha with gun threats and to Mustafa Kemal Pasha on 19 October. While devotion to Salih Pasha was expressed, Mustafa Kemal Pasha was threatened and it was stated that the people would only depend on the sultan. With the telegrams he sent to Istanbul, Salih Pasha was asked to come to Sivas by stating his loyalty to the sultan. Mustafa Kemal Pasha attached great importance to this event and ordered the Governor of Sivas to arrest the criminals. Although the criminals were arrested, the Governor did not pay much attention to this event. However, the movement was interpreted as the shaking of the authority of Mustafa Kemal Pasha in Istanbul. It was later understood that the British Society of Opponents and Sait Molla were behind this incident.111

Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his friends, who left Sivas on 16 October, returned to their headquarters in Sivas on 28 October 1919.

THIRD ARREST (28 October -18 December 1919)

Returning to Sivas on 28 October 1919 after the Amasya talks, Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his friends stayed in Sivas until 18 December 1919.

After the delegates who attended the Sivas Congress started to return to their places as of September 13, the Representative Committee continued its work. Among these studies, the regulation prepared in addition to the statute was published on 28 October 1919.112

How did Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his friends, who stayed in Sivas for about three and a half months, live during this time? How did they spend their lives? Who did they meet, meet? I think this aspect of history is a bit off.

Mustafa Kemal Pasha was hosted in the high school building. Şekeroğlu İsmail Efendi, a former member of the Defense of Rights Association, hosted most of the delegates in his house for 32 days. İsmail Efendi, who was a patriotic person, did not hesitate to spend all his wealth for this cause and served the National Struggle as much as he could.113

Sivas Defense-i Law Committee found the high school building suitable for the congress. This place was taken by force from the manager. One room was reserved for Mustafa Kemal Pasha. For the imposition and furnishing of this room, furniture was taken from various houses, and the Mufti of the Province and the President of the Defense of Law Society, Abdürrauf Efendi, gave a room set consisting of two sofas, two armchairs and four chairs and a carpet to be laid in front of his bed. Şekeroğlu İsmail Efendi and Sığırcıoğlu Hayri Efendi gave some of the other furniture of the room. There was also a bed in the room, and lamps made of brass with imitation of gilding. A silk coverlet, delicately embroidered with bows and floral motifs, was spread over the bed. A young girl from Sivas took this cover from the dowry chest and presented it to Mustafa Kemal. The meeting room was decorated with carpets brought by the people of Sivas. A lectern was placed at one end of the room, and a prayer mat was placed on it to cover the cracks in the wood. Representatives would sit on school benches with holes for inkwells. Mustafa Kemal was given a separate table, and a carpet with the inscription "Long live my Sultan" was hung on the wall behind him. However, he found it appropriate to cover this carpet on the pile-covered armchair and sit on it.115

Members of Congress mostly fed their stomachs with a school lunch consisting of beans and rice,16 and they stayed as guests in the houses in the city. In the evenings, they spent their time playing dominoes in the cafe or taking a stroll towards a bridge over the Kızılırmak.117

Captain İbrahim, who was the Commander of the Central Gendarmerie Station at that time, describes an event as follows: On the way back to the gendarmerie, I saw a crowd of four or five people coming towards Kabakyazısı. They passed us. One of them leaves

Why didn't you say hi? It was Mustafa Kemal Pasha, he said.

Shall I turn the company and say hi? I said.

No, he said no.

Although I had arranged as far as Sivas and ensured that he was safe as far as the congress building, I could not see him...” 118

Some nights were fun. Especially after Anatolia cut off its relations with Istanbul, İsmail Fazıl Pasha was drawing up a cabinet list, Ahmet Rüstem Bey was reading parts of the history he wrote in French, and Kara Vasıf was swimming in the deep and sincere dream of millions of dollars to come from America and a wide internal reform policy to be made in the country. 119

Mustafa Kemal Pasha used to walk among the people on foot until Yıldızçeşme, although Rauf Bey was with him some evenings. 120 Sivas people used to talk to them here and ask about news from the congress. It was easy to approach and meet Rauf Bey. However, Mustafa Kemal Pasha stayed away. The telegraph office was one of the places where the Pasha went in and out the most. Rıfat Akman, a former postal clerk, describes those days in his memoirs:

“... He loved to sit on our wooden chairs. He would give honor to his friends in his entourage and would stay for hours. During the congress, our Post-Telegraph administration established a post, gave orders for a new telegraph machine, and a daily officer served on shifts day and night. Among the friends who performed this duty, telegrapher Şevki, Vecihi Dündar, Dursun Özaltuğ are friends that I can't remember yet...” 122

Derviş (Devirmiş) (Chief of Internal Affairs of Sivas High School) served Pasha, who was always working during his stay in Sivas.123 One of those who served him was Talat Bey. Talat Bey describes an incident between him and his father in the following years:

“... My son, don't act, come home. It is said that today, tomorrow the city will be raided and those here will be captured. Mustafa Kemal risked everything. Think about yourself and your family.

My father continued to press me several times to keep his word. Atatürk must have sensed this situation, because one day he called me and asked who was the one who came to me frequently.

“Father, sir,” I said.

Well said.

After a while he called me again. Putting your hand on my shoulder:

I am satisfied with your service. But the father's right is great. Go tell your father, if the country is lost, what will your child have? “124

It is understood that during the Sivas Congress, there was a great deal of difficulty in meeting the expenses required for the needs of Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his entourage, as well as the food expenses. Those who were with Mustafa Kemal Pasha as soldiers were not registered as guests in the corps, as was the case in Erzurum. We think that this situation is caused by the desire to base the Anatolian integration movement directly on the people. The fact that guests were not registered for the corps cadre caused livelihood and nutrition issues to pose a serious problem. District Governor Nizamettin (Atakar) Bey, who was dismissed from his duty by the Istanbul Government at that time, joined Mustafa Kemal Pasha and was busy with the catering of his entourage. The following excerpts from Nizamettin Bey's memoirs give a clear idea of ​​the financial difficulties.

“One day, I told Mustafa Kemal Pasha that we had borrowed money in the market, town or grocery store and there was no money left.

“Open them again while Rauf is with me,” he said. While sitting with Rauf Bey, I explained the situation. Pasha:

So far, I gave my 700-800 lira. “I have no more money,” he said.

Rauf Bey gave 100 gold.

With this money, we were providing the food of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who numbered twenty people, and his entourage and members of the congress. Mustafa Kemal Pasha did not accept anyone's offer to take the cost of his share.

What will you want from whom? Some of the people next to me are Mülâzım (Lieutenant). He left part of his salary to his family in Istanbul when he left. And here is the expense. Can it stand it? How come?

However, the shortage of money continued for more than three months when Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his entourage were in Sivas.125

The principles set forth in the Amasya Circular took their concrete form with the Erzurum and Sivas Congresses. In the Erzurum and Sivas Congresses, which were held within the framework of the basic principle of "the nation's determination and resolution will save the independence of the nation", the Anatolian people understood their leader and their belief in the National Struggle increased even more. While all these things happen in Anatolia and the belief of the people is increasing day by day, the Greeks who landed in Izmir on May 15, 1919 did not stay idle and increased their pressure. In other words, the weight of the struggle would be the western front. On the other hand, the Ottoman Parliament was to meet in Istanbul. That's why Sivas was far away. In addition, when Sivas was insufficient in terms of transportation and communication facilities that day, the need to search for another center arose. Mustafa Kemal Pasha saw Ankara as the most suitable place.

He was saying, "... I submit my opinion that the Representative Committee should not pass from Sivas to the West..." 127. After the meetings with Kazım Karabekir, who came to Sivas later, he saw that there was no harm in this idea and he gave up on it.

Finally, towards mid-December, it was time to go. However, the financial problem that would continue throughout the National Struggle was still on the agenda. Necessary money was obtained from the Director of the Ottoman Bank in Sivas, Monsieur Oskar Şmit, through Mazhar Müfit (Kansu). Oskar Şmit, a friend of Mazhar Müfit, said, “I believe in my heart that the Turks are a great nation. I am sure that you will be successful in the struggle you are going through this time," he kept saying, and he was showing courage by saying, "I am ready to perform any service if I can, I will even leave my civil service if necessary."128

Mustafa Kemal Pasha accepted on the condition that the money be received in the person of Mazhar Müfit and not in the name of the Representative Committee and the payment was made together. In this way, the money issue was settled. But the issue of the preparation of cars has not yet been resolved. There was no gas, no tires. As Mustafa Kemal Pasha thought about these;

He said, “Well, we dealt with all these important issues, rebellions, these, we made decisions, rest assured, I have never been this bored. We will go to Ankara; We agree to cars that are run-down, with their bellows piecemeal, illegal to drive in the snow this winter, but we can't find gas, tires or money. But of course, we will find a solution to these as well…” 129

Finally, on the morning of the departure day to Ankara, the money problem was resolved with Captain Bedri's guarantor from the bank, with a thousand liras received in exchange for a promissory note. Gasoline and tire problems were obtained from the American School. Believing the goal of the National Struggle and its success, the headmistress gave the requested two pairs of inner tubes, two pairs of outer tires and six cans of gasoline for free.130

The departure date to Ankara was decided. 18 Kanun-i Evvel (December) 1919 We were to set out on Thursday. Everyone was making preparations for the farewell of Pasha and his friends until three hours outside of Sivas. On December 18, 1919, at nine o'clock in the morning, thousands of people gathered in front of the school, which was the headquarters. The majority of the people sent them off by horse or car to the outside of the city. Sivas was almost in mourning. He didn't want to let that magic hero out of his arms. They promised that they went to Ankara temporarily, that Ankara was chosen because of its proximity to Istanbul and the Izmir front, that they would return to Sivas after rooting out internal and external enemies. This word alleviated the pain of separation a little.131

A cold and snowy winter day; In accordance with the rule of “People whose general situation is responsible for administration and dispatch are found as close as possible to the most important target and the imminent danger”132, they moved from Sivas to Ankara. Hüsrev Bey, Mazhar Müfit, Captain Bedri and Hakkı Behiç Beys are in the front of the caravan of three cars. Mustafa Kemal Pasha was in the car behind him, and the cars of the other people were behind him. 133 The last convoy set off amid the enthusiastic farewells of the people of Sivas, friendship, love, excitement and devotion, displays of support, or a variety of emotions. The days of Sivas and Sivas were left behind. Those were the days that Mustafa Kemal Pasha either never forgot or did not want to remember much.134

After Mustafa Kemal Pasha left Sivas:

He was saying, “To the Central Committee of Sivas (18.XI.1919), we would like to present our greetings and respect to your honorable delegation while passing through the Sivas region from the City Barracks, aunt of the country, and wish you success in their holy struggle for the sake of the nation's salvation.”135

Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who left Sivas on 18 December 1919, and his entourage arrived in Ankara on 27 December 1919 via Kayseri, Mucur, and Kırşehir. From now on, the heart of the National Struggle would beat in Ankara after Sivas.136

FOURTH ARRIVING (September 27-28, 1924)

Peace was established in Lausanne and a republic was established. However, Atatürk's war did not end, it started again. With more enthusiasm, with more intensity. His war, or rather his wars, are of an economic, cultural, social and political nature. The fact that the War of Independence is not overshadowed depends on the victory of these wars. Because the greatness of the victory won in that war will be documented in these wars.

Gazi made a long trip in Anatolia in the autumn months of 1924. The trip, which created an exuberant and penetrating atmosphere in the still life of Central Anatolia, went through interesting stages in every aspect.137 The journey, which started from Ankara on 29 August, extended to Dumlupınar, Bursa, Mudanya, Trabzon, Rize, Giresun and Samsun. However, due to the earthquake in the Erzurum region, he changed the itinerary and rushed to comfort the survivors by departing from Amasya, Sivas, and Erzincan.

On the morning of September 27, 1924, he arrived in Sivas at 16:30, departing from Tokat, with his wife Latife Hanım 138, one of his MP friends Salih (Bozok), Hamdullah Suphi ( Tanrıöver), Rauf (Benli), Kılıç Ali, his aides and some people. 139 Army Inspector Cevat Pasha, Governor Faik Bey, Division Commander, Mufti, Mayor, greeted Gazi on Çamlıbel hill, which is within the provincial borders. Deputies, officials, schools, military units, tens of thousands of people gathered outside the city in a place called Gazhane, waiting for the Pasha to come. When Gazi came here, balls were thrown, victims were sacrificed, and there was an extraordinarily enthusiastic welcome. From here to the Municipality, the horses of Gazi and Latife Hanım's cars were untied by the people. The people towed the car to the Municipality.140 Gazi and his companions, who had a rest in the Municipality for a while,

Here they accepted the visits of civil servants, associations, dignitaries and the public. At night, all Sivas youth, tradesmen's associations and schools wandered around the high school for hours with their lantern processions. Gazi and his wife went to the front door and watched the people's show and the national plays of the youth. Mahmut Bey, the Principal of the Male Teacher's School, made the following speech:

“Permit me to express my gratitude on behalf of this community, which wholeheartedly applauds you for bestowing the highest happiness set upon a nation. History has never written a greater happiness than to be victorious after fighting great and mighty enemies.

But there is no greater joy than to see among themselves another president who brings victory, freedom and independence to a nation. At every stage of our past there was a hidden barrier and an insurmountable hill between nation and government. You broke this barrier, you broke it.

Today, our great nation has attained the greatest right and the greatest happiness that has ever been denied to him by seeing himself and his elders in arms. Our nation, which blesses you with all its existence, has the power and ability to advance in the paths you have shown, as well as worthy of the sovereignty you have won. When you honor these adventurous lands destroyed by years and events, a higher patriotism and a higher interest and love for this people cannot be imagined.

Sivas, which gained a historical reputation during the first periods of the revolution and our independence, will forever remember the glorious memory of your second auspicious visit. I salute you on behalf of Turkishness, great Gazi.” 141

Gazi replied to this speech and thanked the young people. Noting the importance of Sivas in the history of the Turkish War of Independence, he praised the work of the people of Sivas during the years of struggle.142 The people of Sivas wished them to rest for a few days in this city that loved them very much. Gazi said that he wanted to catch up with Erzurum as soon as possible and promised to stay for a few days on the way back. Gazi and his companions, who spent the night in Sivas, moved to Erzincan on September 28, 1924.143

FIFTH ARREST (12 -13 October 1924)

After leaving Sivas on September 28, 1924 and bandaging the wounds of the earthquake victims in the eastern provinces, Gazi and his companions went as far as Erzincan, Erzurum, Sarıkamış and Kars, while returning from Trabzon by sea, they did not return to Ankara via Sivas by land. preferred.

After visiting Karahisar Municipality, Turkish Hearth and Government offices on October 12, 1924, Gazi moved to Sivas. Despite various adaptations to prevent the ceremony from being held, they set off with the "live" wishes raised by all the people.

The people in Suşehri, Zara and Hafik (Koçhisar) greeted Gazi with a big show. Gazi was closely interested in the situation of immigrants on the way. He got information by talking to immigrants. Upon the response received from the Prime Ministry to the announcement about the meeting of the Assembly 144, Gazi called the Grand National Assembly to a meeting with the wire he pulled from Suşehri.

“To the Presidency of the Grand National Assembly and to the Prime Minister

1. When deemed necessary, I call the Grand National Assembly to a meeting immediately in accordance with Article 19 of the Constitution.

2. Written to the Presidency of the Grand National Assembly and to the Prime Minister's Office from Suşehri in the afternoon of 12 October 1924. The government is requested to make the necessary notification.”

Arriving in Sivas at eight o'clock in the evening, Gazi stayed as a guest in the Turkish Hearth and was applauded fiercely by the public. 145 The railway works, on which the Republican period emphasized, started to give their products. Railroads were being laid in Sivas. The people of Sivas were celebrating. Gazi sent a congratulatory telegram from Sivas to Prime Minister İsmet Pasha that day, expressing his satisfaction.146

Gazi spent that night in Sivas. He intended to stay here. However, as the situation on our southeastern border became serious, it was necessary to go to Ankara as soon as possible, since he called the Assembly to a meeting. For this reason, he left Sivas on the morning of 13 October 1924 to go to Ankara.

SIXTH ARRIVED (September 19-20, 1928)

Mustafa Kemal Pasha, starting from Tekirdağ on 23 August 1928, during the days when the war revolution engulfed the country like an avalanche, and the country embarked on a literacy campaign with all its means, Bursa, Çanakkale, Gallipoli, Sinop, Samsun, Amasya, Tokat, Sivas. and went on a country tour that included Kayseri. Gazi's purpose from this trip was to check the level of learning of new letters between civil servants and the public after the speech he made in Sarayburnu on 9 August 1928 and to enlighten the public on this issue.

The Kızılırmak Newspaper, which was published in Sivas, frequently published news about this trip of 148 Gazi to the readers and announced that he would come to Sivas to the public in its copy dated September 17, 1928, while also talking about the preparations made in the city. The last sentence in this news, “Aziz Gazi is Coming” has been printed with new letters. 149

Gazi, who was welcomed by a delegation under the chairmanship of Sivas Deputies and Governor in Çamlıbel, on the border of Sivas, entered Sivas at 6 pm on 19 September 1928, accompanied by Prime Minister İsmet Pasha, Minister of Health Refik Bey, Kılıç Ali and their entourage. At the entrance of the city, Gazi was greeted by civil servants, students, soldiers and thousands of people with a magnificent cheer and 21 guns. Lantern parades and festivities were held in all streets, women, men, children, until the morning. 150

Gazi, İsmet Pasha and Refik Bey were guests in the governor's mansion, and an evening banquet was given in their honor by the Governor of Sivas. After spending the night in the Governor's mansion, on the morning of September 20, 1928, he watched the reading and writing activities in the governor's office and received information from the relevant people.

He tested the people of Sivas, who had gathered in the Government Square, at the throne: “His Holiness the Veteran invited a butcher named Abidin from among the people to the throne. Abidin came and presented himself with deep shame that he had not learned the new letters yet. His Holiness the Gazi taught the butcher Abidin the melody letters within ten minutes and had his name written. Government Square resounded with applause as Abidin learned each letter. When Abidin wrote his name, the square resounded with great applause. Long live, great Veteran! their voices shook the horizon.”152 Director of Tahrirat Basri Bey wrote the following sentences of His Holiness:

“It seems with satisfaction that the venerable people of Sivas will easily learn to read and write in letters in a short time.”

Following this, showing respect to İsmet Pasha; They said "Learned Pasha" and when they bid farewell to the public with the "thank you, thank you, goodbye" address, the applause and cheers that rose from all sides showed the feelings of love that broke from the hearts of the people. 153

The high school building and the congress hall, where the Sivas Congress was held, were arranged as a museum. 154 Gazi, who went to the high school and saw this hall as well, wrote in the museum book while leaving:

“I was very pleased to see the hall where our 20 September 1928 first congress was held.

Veteran Mustafa Kemal”

wrote the sentence. Gazi departed for Kayseri with his companions towards noon that day.

SEVENTH COMING (20 - 21 November 1930)

Newspapers of 17 November 1930 wrote that Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha would travel from Ankara to Kayseri, Sivas (if the weather permits), Tokat, Amasya, Samsun, Trabzon, Istanbul, Afyonkarahisar, Adana on the same day. 155 To Gazi, his aide Rusuhi, his personal secretary Hasan Rıza, M. Ekrem, Deputy Internal Affairs Şükrü Kaya, Undersecretary of Health Hüsamettin Beyler and Kılıç Ali, Salih, Recep, Cevat Abbas, Falih Rıfkı, Recep Zühtü, Reşit Galip, Ruşen Eşref and Memduh Şevket Beys were also accompanying them. 156

Departing from Ankara on 17 November 1930, at 8.30, Gazi and his entourage departed from Kayseri on 19 November 1930 at 14.30. 157 They spent the night on the train at Gemerek station and ate lunch on the train.

Gazi, who came to Sivas at 14:00 on Thursday, November 20, 1930, was greeted enthusiastically by a large group of people, men and women, despite his orders not to hold a ceremony. After walking with the people for a while in nice weather, they went to the government office with their cars. Here, the President met with the Minister of Interior Şükrü Kaya, Deputy Recep Bey and Sivas Governor Akif Iyidogan for a while. Later, after visiting the Corps and the Municipality, they visited the girls' teacher school and high school.

Since the visits coincided with the Thursday holiday, he could not enter the classrooms to listen to the lectures and meet with the students. They visited the dormitories in the girls' teacher's school and talked to a few of the students who lined up to greet her when they left, and talked to the school principal about the number of students. While walking around the hall, one of the tables was misplaced. Gazi;

“The place of this table was here, I gave my first speech here. I came to this podium when there was a need for a chief in an argument.”

He told his memories of those days and showed where his friends lived. By this time they had brought the museum notebook. He wrote on 20 September 1928;

Under the sentence “I was very pleased to see the hall where our first congress was held”;

He signed the sentence "Today I continue with the same determination, with the same strength".

Coming to the applause of high school students, Gazi visited the headquarters of the Republican People's Party, where they accepted the members of the People's Party and talked about the reforms made and their views on the state of the country. Since the Free Republican Party had not been formed in Sivas, there was no one representing the opposition among the people he accepted.

After the Republican People's Party, His Excellency the President of the Republic walked to the Governor's mansion, amid the applause of thousands of people waiting to see him, and talked to some of the people on the way. Gazi, who spent the night in the Governor's mansion and received various delegations there, departed for Tokat on 21 November 1930 at 10:15. 160

Ekizin Arrival (November 13, 1937)

Besides Atatürk, Prime Minister Celal Bayar, Minister of Interior Şükrü Kaya, Minister of Public Works Ali Çetinkaya, Pilot Sabiha Gökçen, Members of Parliament Ali Kılıç, Recep Peker, Salih Bozok, Cevat Abbas Gürer, Dr Ömer İrdelp, Secretary General Hasan Rıza Soyak, Chief Aide Celal Üner, Guard Commander Although İsmail Hakkı Tekçe and others were also present, they left Ankara on 12 November 1937 by a special train to conduct a survey in the Eastern provinces. 161

Atatürk and his entourage, who arrived in Sivas on 13 November 1937 at 9.40, were at the station, including Sivas Governor Nazmi Toker, the commander and invited deputies who had previously come to Sivas by special train, government dignitaries, band, military detachment, students, scouts, official They were welcomed by the heads of special organizations and a large crowd.

Atatürk shook the hands of the greeters at the station, walked past the guard of honor saluting them, complimented the soldiers, students and the people who filled the station. From here, they came straight to the Republican People's Party, and were greeted with the frenzied cheers of the people who took to the streets on the whole route.163

After the party, Atatürk went directly to the high school where the Sivas Congress was held, together with the high school principal, mathematics teacher Ömer Beygo, and his assistant philosophy teacher Faik Dranaz and other interested parties. They visited the classrooms in high school and asked questions to the students. They took geometry class in 9-A class of high school. In this lesson, they put a female student at the blackboard. The students had difficulty in saying the Arabic names of the angles formed by the intersection of two parallel lines drawn on the board with two other parallel lines and were making mistakes. Affected by this situation, Atatürk's reaction:

“With these incomprehensible Arabic terms, students cannot be informed. He said, “Lessons should be explained in Turkish with new terms”, taking the chalk and using new Turkish terms such as “angle” for “zaviye” and “triangle” for “dili” with drawings on the blackboard, explaining some geometry subjects and meanwhile the Pythagoras Theorem. .

While explaining the origin of the term "parallel", which is used instead of the word "parallel", which is "parallel", he explained that the Turks in Central Asia named the stance of the two wheels of their carts connected to an axle as "para". In this course, Atatürk also ordered that the textbooks be reprinted in Turkish terms within a few months and delivered to all schools.164

Atatürk, who saw the Congress Hall again;

"Decisions that prepared the salvation of a nation were made here," he said, telling about some of the works during the congress days, and his memories were refreshed once again. Later, he went to the construction of the locomotive and wagon workshops in Sivas and received information about the Cer Atelier, the construction of which will be completed in six months. At 11.10 am, he saluted the people gathered among enthusiastic displays of affection and set out for Çetinkaya.165


Due to its location at the crossroads of trade routes extending in the north-south and east-west directions of Anatolia, Sivas emerges as an important center in every period of history. Although the collapse that continued in parallel with the collapse of the Ottoman Empire improved a little with the Tanzimat and personal efforts, it looks like a big town with all kinds of ethnic and banditry movements before the National Struggle.

After Mustafa Kemal Pasha went to Anatolia and started the National Struggle, Sivas, like every Anatolian city, did not delay in joining him in a short time and suddenly found itself as the center of the National Struggle. Supporting this movement with all its cadres, Sivas took the most valuable place in the victory won under difficult conditions rarely recorded in history, with Atatürk's phrase “We Laid the Foundation of the Republic Here”.

In this city, which is mostly remembered with the Sivas Congress, despite all the internal and external opposition, a turning point has started, and the foundations of the moves that brought the national revolution, war, liberation and revolution were laid here in the name of the unity of the homeland.

Sivas also participated in the attempts to establish modern Turkey, which was started after the National Struggle, and played a pioneering role in some of them.

Each visit of Atatürk, who came to Sivas eight times in total, aroused great enthusiasm, and the people of Sivas were always proud and proud to embrace their great savior.





Gaye-i Milliye

Hakimiyet-i Milliye

İrade-i Milliye




Sivas Postası

Tasvir-i Efkar



Atatürk Araştırma Dergisi

Ayın Tarihi


Belgelerle Türk Tarihi Dergisi

Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (Sivas)

Hayat Tarih ve Edebiyat Mecmuası

İstanbul Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Tarih Dergisi

Orman Mühendisliği Dergisi

Revak (Sivas)

Tarih Vesikaları Dergisi

Tarih ve Toplum

Toplumsal Tarih

Türk Kültürü

Vakıflar Dergisi

Yıllar Boyu Tarih Dergisi


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AAMD: Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Dergisi.

A.g.e.: Adı Geçen Eser.

A.g.m.: Adı Geçen Makale.

Bkz.: Bakınız.

C.: Cilt.

C.Ü.: Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi.

E.Ü.: Ege Üniversitesi.

İ.A.: İslam Ansiklopedisi.

s.: Sayfa

s.y.: Sayfa Yok

TDK: Türk Dil Kurumu.

TTK: Türk Tarih Kurumu.

t.y.: Tarih Yok.

vd: Ve devamı.

1 Besim Darkot; Sivas, İ.A., CX, s. 569-577. “Sivas Adının Kökeni” konusunda bkz. Oğuz Ceylan; Sur ve Kaleleri ile Tarihte Sivas, Sivas, 1988, s. 9-13.

2 Osman Turan; Selçuklular ve İslamiyet, 3. Basım, İstanbul, 1980, s. 199.

3 Tahsin Özgüç’ün Türk Tarih Kurumu ile Sivas ili adına Toprak Tepe’de yapılan kazılardan elde edilen bilgilere göre esas itibariyle tepe olan Toprak Tepe’den ilk önce M. Ö. 2. Binin başında Hititler yararlanmasını bilmişlerdir. O halde Sivas’ın bilinen en eski sakinlerinin Hititler olduğu anlaşılmaktadır. Tahsin Özgüç; Sivas Kale Kazısı, Ankara, 1947, s. 224.

4 Sivas, Bizanslılar zamanında serbest bir vilayet, VIII. asırdan itibaren Tem’a, yani askeri valilik merkezi olduğu gibi, Kapadokya’da tesis edilen üç metropolitlikten birinin de merkezi idi. Nazmi Sevgen; Anadolu Kaleleri, C. I, Ankara, 1959, s. 307. Bizanslılar döneminde ki, Tem’a merkezi için bkz. Ernst Honigmann; Bizans Devletinin Doğu Sınırı (Çeviren: Fikret Işıltan), İstanbul, 1970, s. 40-48.

5 Büyük bir Türkmen halkı 1059 yılında ilk defa Sivas’a varıp şehri işgal etmişse de buraya yerleşmeyip geri dönmüşlerdi. Türklerin Sivas’a tam hakim olmaları 1071 Malazgirt zaferinin bir sonucudur. Osman Turan; Selçuklular Zamanında Türkiye, İstanbul, 1971, s. 18-24.

6 Osman Turan; Selçuklular ve..., s. 196-215 (Selçuklular zamanında Sivas şehri), Claude Cahen; Osmanlılardan Önce Anadolu’da Türkler (Çeviren: Yıldız Moran). İstanbul, 1979, s. 160-176, 190-203,309-326.

7 Bu konu için bkz. Kemal Göde; Eretnalılar (1327-1381), Ankara, 1994.

8 Rıdvan Nafiz - İsmail Hakkı; Sivas Şehri Anadolu Türk Tetkikatında, İstanbul, 1928, s. 10. Sivas’ın çevre yollarındaki hanlar için bkz. Kurt Erdmann; Das Anatolische Karavansaray Des 13. Jahrhunderts, Berlin, 1961, s. 614, m. Kemal Özergin; Anadolu Selçuklu Kervansarayları, Tarih Dergisi, XX (Mart 1965), s. 141-170.

9 Turan; “Selçuklular ve...”, s. 202-203.

10 Turan; “Selçuklular ve ...”, s. 203-204.

11 İbn Battuta Seyahatnamesi (Çeviren : Mehmet Şerif), İstanbul, 1333, s. 326.

12 Şehrin bu felaketine dair hatıra, Yıldırım Beyazıd’e atfedilen: “Çal Çoban Çal! Ertuğrul gibi oğlun mu öldü, Sivas gibi Kalen mi yıkıldı?” cümlesiyle zamanımıza kadar gelmiştir.

13 Bu konu için bkz. Yaşar Yücel; Anadolu Beylikleri Hakkında Araştırmalar II, 2. Baskı, Ankara, 1991. Aziz B. Erdeşir-i; Bezm u Rezm (Çeviren: Mürsel Öztürk), Ankara, 1990.

14 Rıdvan Nafiz..., “Sivas Şehri”, s. 99. 15. ve 16. yüzyıllarda Eyalet-i Rum konusunda bkz. Tayyib Gökbilgin, 15. ve 16. Asırda Eyalet-i Rum, Vakıflar Dergisi VI, İstanbul, 1965, s. 51-61. 1565 tarihli idari taksimata göre; Rum Beylerbeyi Sivas (Paşa Sancağı), Amasya, Bozok, Çorum, Arapkir, Divriği, Canik Beyleri. 1609’da da bir değişiklik görülmemektedir. Halil İnancık; “Adâletnâmeler”, Belgeler 3-5 (1965), s. 91-93.

15 Evliya Çelebi Seyahatnamesi, C. III (Neşreden: Ahmet Cevdet), İstanbul, 1314, s. 198-199.

16 Hasan Tahsin; Sivas Vilayeti Sıhhi ve İçtimai Coğrafyası, İstanbul, 1932, s. 65.

17 Polonyalı Simeon’un Seyahatnamesi 1608-1609 (Çeviren: Hrand D. Andreasyon), İstanbul, 1964, s. 87.

18 Evliya Çelebi..., s. 199-202.

19 Necdet Sakaoğlu; Anadolu Derebeyi Ocaklarından Köse Paşa Hanedanı, Ankara, 1984, s. 30.

20 Sestini; Voyage De Constantinople a Bassora. Paris, L’AN VI (1795), s. 58-63.

21 Helmuth Von Moltke; Türkiye Mektupları (Çeviren: Hayrullah Örs), İstanbul, 1969, s. 148

22 A. D. Mordtmann; Anatolien Skizzen Und Reisebnefe Aus Kleinasien (Derleyen: Franz Babinger), Hannover, 1925, s. 151. Seyahatnamelerde ve anılarda Sivas için bkz. Hüseyin Yıldırım; Seyahatnamelerde ve Anılarda Sivas, Toplumsal Tarih, Sayı 7 (Temmuz 1994), s. 24-31.

23 Ömer Demirel; II. Mahmut Döneminde Sivas’ta Esnaf Teşkilatı ve Üretim-Tüketim İlişkileri, Ankara, 1989. Bu kitapta, Sivas Şer’i Mahkeme Sicilleri (1781-1841) incelenerek o dönemin (1808-1839) şehir merkezi ele alınmış ve ayrıntılı bilgi verilmiştir.

24 İlber Ortaylı; Tanzimat’tan Sonra Mahalli İdareler, Ankara, 1974, s. 39.

25 Kamil Erdeha; Milli Mücadele’de Vilayetler ve Valiler, İstanbul, 1975, s. 75.

26 Hasan Tahsin; a. g. e., s. 65.

27 Halil Rıfat Paşa’nın Tembihnameleri 1302 tarihli Sivas Salnamesi’nde bir arada basılmıştır, s. 317-332. 1964 yılında Sivas Valisi ve Belediye Başkanı Mehmet Varinü tarafından kısa bir önsöz ve biyografi ile birlikte yeniden yayınlanmıştır. (Mehmet Varinü; Halil Rıfat Paşa “Eski Sivas Valilerinden”, Sivas, 1964). 1984 Kasım’ında Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Fen Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 3. Sayısında 1984, Tembihnameler, orijinal metne bağlı kalınarak üçüncü defa yayınlanmıştır. (Ali Birinci; Halil Rıfat Paşa’nın Tembihnameleri, s. 13-24). Aynı ay içinde Orman Mühendisliği Dergisinin 11. sayısında Tembihnameler yayınlanmıştır. (Erdoğan Tengiz; Sivas Valisi Halil Rıfat Paşa’nın Tembihnameleri, Orman Mühendisliği Dergisi, 11, 1984, s. 62-67). Daha sonra yine Ali Birinci - A. Turan Alkan tarafından, “Halil Rıfat Paşa, Hayatı, Eserleri, Şahsiyeti” adı altında (Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi; Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 7, Kasım, 1986, s. 97-112) yeniden yayınlandı. 1987 yılında da Sivas Valisi tarafından yeniden yayınlandı. (Lütfi Tuncel; Sivas Valisi Halil Rıfat Paşa ve Tembihnameleri, Sivas Valiliği Özel idare Yayınları, Sivas 1987, Lütfi Tuncel; Sivas Valisi Halil Rıfat Paşa ve Tembibnameleri, içişleri Bakanlığı Araştırma, Planlama ve Koordinasyon Kurulu Başkanlığı yayın no. 425, Ankara, 1987).

28 Ali Birinci - A. Turan Alkan; Halil Rıfat Paşa, Hayatı, Eserleri, Şahsiyeti, Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi, Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 7, (Kasım 1986), s. 97, 112. Lütfi Tuncel; Sivas Valisi Halil Rıfat Paşa ve Tembihnameleri, Sivas, s. 7-14.

29 Sivas İl Yıllığı 1973, Ankara, 1973, s. 137.

30 “... Ana caddelerin genişlemesi için ev, dükkan bir hayli bina yıkıldı. Sahiplerine emvali metrukeden birer ev tahsis olunuyordu. Muammer Bey’e; “Yıkılıyor bunlar, nasıl ve ne vakit yapılacak?” denildiği zaman, “Asıl güçlük yıkmaktadır, benden sonra gelenler yapar” derdi. Ahmet Hilmi Kalaç; Kendi Kitabım, Ankara, 1960, s. 112.

31 Kalaç; a.g.e., s. 79-128. Vali Muammer Bey’in yakın arkadaşı olan Ahmet Hilmi Kalaç, onunla birlikte Sivas’ta uzun süre görev yapmıştır. O dönem Sivas’ının güzel bir panoramasının çizdiği hatıralarında Ermeni olaylarına da geniş yer vermektedir. Vali Muammer Bey’in, o dönemde Sivas’tan geçenlerin duygu ve düşüncelerini almak amacıyla bir de defter açtığından bahseder: “Sivas’ın o tarihlerdeki hal ve mekii hakkında ihtisas ve müşahadelerini kaydetmek üzere bir şeref defteri açılmıştı. Sivas’tan geçen ve orada oturan bazı zevatın görüş ve düşünüşleri kendi kalemleri ile ifade olunmuştu”, s. 112-118.

32 A. Turan Alkan; Birinci Dünya Harbi’nde Sivaslı Bir Zabitin Hatıra Defterinden, Revak/91, Sivas, 1991, s. 8.

33 Erdeha; a.g.e., s. 42.

34 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; Nutuk, C.l, İstanbul, 1980, s. 38.

35 Reşit Paşa’nın Hatıraları (Yayınlayan: Cevdet R. Yularkıran), İstanbul, 1939.

36 Hüseyin Yıldırım; İrade-i Milliye, Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Dergisi, Sayı: 23 (Mart 1992), s. 325-330.

37 Bekir Sıtkı Baykal; Milli Mücadele’de Anadolu Kadınları Müdafaa-i Vatan Cemiyeti, Ankara, 1986.

38 Hüseyin Yıldırım; İstiklal Harbi’nde Sivas (19 Mayıs 1919-23 Nisan 1920), (Basılmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi), Ege Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İzmir, 1986.

39 Yenihan (Yıldızeli) Ayaklanması, Vehbi Cem Aşkım; Sivas Kongresi, 2. Baskı, İstanbul, 1963, s. 182-187. Koçgiri Ayaklanması, İstiklal Harbi’nde Ayaklanmalar (1919-1921) Genelkurmay Başkanlığı Harp Tarihi Yayınları, Ankara, 1974, s. 259-281. Bu ayaklanma konusunda Gaye-i Milliye Gazetesi’nde de bilgi bulunmaktadır.

40 Alkan; a.g.m.. s. 8.

41 Bkz. Kızılırmak Gazetesi, Eylül-Ekim 1341.

42 A. Turan Alkan; İstiklal Mahkemesi’nin Sivas Günleri ve Muhaliflerin Tasfiyesi I, Tarih ve Toplum, Sayı: 62 (Şubat 1989), s. 82.

43 Burhan Paçaçıoğlu; Sivas Basınında Harf İnkılâbı, Sivas, 1990, s. 33.

44 Kızılırmak, 10 Şubat 1927-6 Haziran 1928.

45 Sivas, 29 Aralık 1932. “... Vali Süleyman Sami Beyefendi, Ali Ağa Camii’nde (ezan okuma) dersini alan efendileri ve ezan talim ettiren musiki muallimi Sarı Hatipoğlu Muzaffer Bey’i dinlemiş ve muvaffakiyetlerine memnun kalmışlardır. Pazartesi gününden itibaren bütün camilerde okunan Türkçe ezan ve kaameti daha müessir bulan yüzlerce halk vecihle dinlemiştir.”

46 Sivas, 13 Birinci Kanun 1934. “... Valimiz Bay Süleyman Sami, Soyadı töresine göre kendisine Kepenek soyadını almışlardır.” Kepenek, Sivas’a beş kilometre uzaklıkta bulunan bir suyun adıdır. Vali, bu suyun Sivas’a getirilmesi işiyle çok uğraştığından kendisi bu soyadını tercih etmiştir.

47 Bu konu için bkz. Hüseyin Yıldırım; “Atatürk İnkılâpları ve Sivas”, Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Dergisi, Sayı: 29 (Temmuz 1994), s. 457-470.

48 Ergün Baybars; Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Tarihi I, 2. Baskı, İzmir, 1986, s. 125-126.

49 Nutuk, C.I, s. 24.

50 Ay. es., s. 38.

51 Erdeha; a.g.e., s. 76-77.

52 Mazhar Müfit Kansu; Erzurumdan Ölümüne Kadar Atatürk’le Beraber, C.I, Ankara, 1988, (3. Basım), s. 10-12.

53 Bu konu için bkz. Cevat Dursunoğlu; Milli Mücadele’de Erzurum, Ankara, 1946.

54 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; Nutuk, C. III, MEB, İstanbul, 1967, s. 916.

55 23 Haziran 1919 tarih ve 84 numaralı bu şifre metini için bkz. Nutuk, C. I, s. 43-44.

56 Reşit Paşa’nın Hatıraları, s. 24.

57 Reşit Paşa’nın Hatıraları, s. 49. “... Meğer Halit Bey benden hınç çıkarmak ve İstanbul’a yaranmak için olacak, yanımdan ayrılır ayrılmaz Mustafa Kemal Paşa’nın azlolunduğuna, yakalanıp İstanbul’a gönderilmesinin bir gün meselesi bulunduğuna dair iki yafta yazıp şehrin kalabalık yerlerine astırmış imiş. Emir Paşa’dan bu haberi alınca polise haber verdim, yaftaları arattırdım. Onları bir iki yere yapıştırdığı sahih idi, lakin duvarlara asılmaları ile beraber kendi eserlerinin yine kendi elleri ile yok edilmeleri bir olmuş...”

58 Nutuk, C. I, s. 47-48.

59 Reşit Paşa’nın Hatıraları, s. 54-60.

60 Nutuk, C. I, s. 48-50.

61 Nutuk, C. I, s. 50.

62 Şevket Süreyya Aydemir; Tek Adam, C. II, İstanbul, 1981, s. 49-50.

63 Reşit Paşa’nın Hatıraları, s. 60-62.

64 Reşit Paşa’nın Hatıraları, s. 62.

65 Celal Bayar; Bende Yazdım, C. VIII, İstanbul, 1972, s. 2618-2621.

66 Aşkun; a.g.e., s. 42-43.

67 Nutuk, C. I, s. 51. İbrahim Süreyya Yiğit; “Çardak Boğazı’nda Bir Gece”, Dünya, 10 Kasım 1954 (Ulus , 10 Kasım 1939). Yazar bu yazısında Sivas’tan itibaren Erzurum’a kadar olan yolculuğu ayrıntıları ile anlatmaktadır.

68 Enver Ziya Karal; Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Tarihi, İstanbul, 1971, s. 41.

69 Kansu; a.g.e., s. 150.

70 Nutuk, C. I, s. 100-102. Kansu; a.g.e., s. 199-203. Atatürk’ün Şimdiye Kadar Yayınlanmamış Anıları, Anlatan Ali Metin (Atatürk’ün Emir Çavuşu), Alkan Matbaası, 1967, s. 27-32.

71 Aşkun; a.g.e., s. 99-100.

72 Aşkun; a.g.e., s. 106-107. Kansu; a.g.e., s. 203.

73 Mustafa Kemal Paşa’nın yanında bu arkadaşlarından başka Dr. Refik (Saydam), Hüsrev (Gerede), Mazhar Müfit (Kansu), Süreyya (Yiğit), Recep Zühtü, yaverlerinden Muzaffer (Kılıç) ve Sivas Kongresi’ne katılacak daha başkaları da vardı.

74 Atatürk Sivas’ta, Sivas, 1982, s. 91.

75 Aşkun; a.g.e., s. 106-107. “Henüz on yaşında olan bende bir mütecessis çocuk sıfatıyle bu parlak karşılayışa katılmış, olan bitenleri ancak uzaktan seyredebilmiştim. Zira o mahşeri kalabalığın arasına sokulabilecek kadar ne kuvvete, ne de cesarete sahiptim.”

76 Kansu; a.g.e., s. 204.

77 Reşit Paşa’nın Hatıraları, s. 125.

78 Reşit Paşa’nın Hatıraları, s. 125-126.

79 Valinin bu kararsız tutumu kongre boyunca devam etmiş ve sonunda İstanbul’a son sözünü söyleyerek Milli Mücadele saflarına geçmiştir. Sivas Mebusu Sayın Rasim Basara, Sivas Valisi hakkında şu bilgiyi vermektedir: “Reşit Paşa 304 senesinde Mekteb-i Mülkiye’den çıkmıştır. O zamanki idadi mektepleri müdürlük ve muallimliklerinde bulunmuş, daha sonra Serez Mutasarrıfı olmuştur. Meşrutiyet inkılâbında Serez Mutasarrıfı bulunuyordu. O inkılâba karışmış ve mühim hizmet ifa etmiştir. 324’de Abdülhamid’e, 24 saat zarfından Meşrutiyet ve Kanun-i Esasi ilan edilmediği takdirde Serez Livası’nda Veliahd Reşad Efendiye biat edileceği telgrafını çeken buzattır. Meşrutiyet inkılâbından sonra bu hizmetine binaen Edirne Valisi oldu. Manastır ve Kastamonu’da da valilikleri vardır. Kastamonu Valisi iken imparatorluk meclisine Ergani’den mebus intihab olunmuştu. 918 mütarekesinde sonra meclisin feshi üzerine Sivas’a vali olarak gelmişti. Sivas’tan ayrıldığı tarih mazbutum değildir... 336 sonları veya 337 bidayetleri olacak. Hastalığına binaen Sivas’tan tahvilini istemiş ve ikinci defa olarak Kastamonu’ya tayin olunmuştu. Orada iken müptela olduğu kalb hastalığı sebebile valilikten çekilerek İnebolu’da oturmaya mecbur kalmış ve İstanbul’un milli iradeye intikali üzerine İstanbul’a gelerek burada vefat etmiştir.” Aşkun; a.g.e., s. 24-25.

80 Bu bina ve okul için bkz. Halûk Çağdaş; Sivas İdadisi: Geçmişten Geleceğe Uzanan Tarihi Bir Bina, Tarih ve Toplum, Sayı: 90 (Haziran 1991), s. 30-31. Sivas Lisesi 100. Yıl 1887-1987, Sivas (t.y.).

81 Kansu; a.g.e., s. 206. Bu konuda bkz. Muhlis Günay; Sivas Kongresi’nin Son Tanığı Atatürk’ü Anlatıyor: “Mustafa Kemal’in Yüreğinde Korkunun Yeri Yoktu”, (Talat Talay), Yıllar Boyu Tarih Dergisi, C. X, Sayı: 6 (Haziran 1983), s. 4-8.

82 Kılıç Ali; Kılıç Ali Hatıralarını Anlatıyor, Sel Yayınları, İstanbul, 1955, s. 10 vd. Kılıç Ali Hatıralarında Kongre binasının ve Atatürk’le karşılaşmalarının panoramasını çok güzel aktarmaktadır.

83 Kansu; a.g.c, s. 211.

84 Kansu; a.g.e., s. 211. Kongreye katılan delege sayısının kesin olarak kaç olduğu belli değildir. Kongrenin açıldığı gün delege sayısı 28 idi. Delegelerin bir kısmı kongre devam ederken, bir kısmı da bitmek üzereyken gelmişti. Mahmut Goloğlu bu sayıyı 38, Mazhar Müfit Kansu 29, Cumhurbaşkanlığı Atatürk Arşivi’ndeki liste 33, Vehbi Cem Aşkun 34, Lord Kinross daha da ileri giderek 99 olarak vermektedir. Yine Sivas Kongresi üyeleri adıyla bazı kitaplarda görülen grup halindeki resim, Sivas Kongresi’nin asıl üyelerini göstermediği gibi bazı üyelerde bu resimde yer almamaktadır.

85 İrade-i Milliye, 14 Eylül 1335. Nutuk, C. HI, s. 945-949 (Vesika 54).

86 Uluğ İğdemir; Sivas Kongresi Tutanakları, Ankara, 1969.

87 İğdemir; a.g.e., s. 1.

88 İğdemir; a.g.e., s. 1.

89 İrade-i Milliye, 14 Eylül 1335, s. 3.

90 Nutuk, C. I, s. 105.

91 İrade-i Milliye, 14 Eylül 1335, s. 3.

92 Nutuk, C. I, s. 106-107.

93 Aybars; a.g.e., s. 178-179.

94 Sivas Kongresi Tutanakları, s. 33 vd. (Refet, Rauf, Kara Vasıf, İsmail Hami, İsmail Paşa’nın konuşmaları), Sabahattin Selek, Anadolu İhtilali, C. I (3. Baskı), İstanbul, 1966, s. 284. Aşkun; a.g.e., s. 135-150, Kansu; a.g.e., s. 211.

95 İğdemir; a.g.e., s. 47-71.

96 İğdemir; a.g.e., s. 75.

97 Seçil Akgün; General Harbord’un Anadolu Gezisi ve Raporu, İstanbul, 1981, s. 99-100. Türkiye’de kurulmak istenen Amerikan Mandası, General James G. Harbord’un gizli raporu, Belgelerle Türk Tarihi Dergisi, Sayı: 33 (Haziran 1970), s. 10-14. Fethi Tevetoğlu; Milli Mücadele’de Mustafa Kemal Paşa-General Harbord Görüşmesi, Türk Kültürü, Sayı: 76, 77, 80, 81. Fethi Tevetoğlu; Mustafa Kemal Paşa-General Harbord Görüşmesi Tanık ve Tercümanı: Prof. Hulusi Y. Hüseyin (Pektaş), Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Dergisi, Sayı: 10 (Kasım 1987), s. 197-207. İrade-i Milliye’nin 17 Eylül 1335 tarihli nüshasında Mr. Browne bir teşekkür yazısı yer alacaktır. Latimer, Fredrick; Sivas Kongresi’nde Amerikalı Bir Gazeteci, Hayat Tarih Mecmuası, Sayı: 9 (Ekim 1965), s. 83-87.

98 Bekir Sıtkı Baykal; Heyet-i Temsiliye Kararları, Ankara, 1974, s. 2.

99 Kazım Karabekir; İstiklal Harbimizin Esasları, İstanbul, 1960, s. 126.

100 Yunus Nadi; Ali Galip Hadisesi, İstanbul, 1955, s. 34 vd. “Ali Galip Olayı” konusunda bkz. ATASE Arşivi Klasör No: 325, Dolap No (51) - 6 - 99, Göz No (21) - 2, Dosya No (7) - 14. Bu dosya tamamen Ali Galip Olayı’na ayrılmış olup olayın gelişmeleri ayrıntılarıyla verilmektedir.

101 İlhan Sungu; Tarih Vesikaları Dergisi, C. I, Sayı: 1, (1941), s. 7-8.

102 Kansu;a.g.e., s. 211.

103 14 Ekim 1335 (1919) tarihinde ilk nüshası çıkan lrade-i Milliye Gazetesi 30 X 50 santimetre genişliğinde dört sayfadan ibaretti. İlk devrede bin kadar nüsha çıkarılan gazete artan ilgi üzerine baskı sayısını giderek artırdı. Gazetede Mustafa Kemal Paşa’nın bildirileri, Heyet-i Temsiliye kararları ve çeşitli yazılar yer alıyordu, İrade-i Milliye’nin ne olduğu, niçin bağımsızlık savaşına girişildiği, neler yapıldığı, neden bu duruma düşüldüğü bu gazete vasıtası ile duyurulmaktaydı. 1922’nin Mart ayında son nüshasının çıktığı tahmin oluyor. Bugün Ankara’da Türk inkılâp Tarihi Enstitüsü’nde 1-42 sayılar, ayrıca Başbakanlık Basın Yayın Genel Müdürlüğü Kitaplığı’nda 1-42 sayılar vardır. Ayrıca İstanbul Hakkı Tank Us Kütüphanesi’nde de çeşitli sayıları vardır. Bulabildiğim son sayı 14 Eylül 1337 (Numara 134) tarihlidir. Sivas ti Kültür Müdürlüğü de, bu gazetenin günümüz Türkçesine çevrilmesi ve bilim dünyasına kazandırılması konusunda uğraş vermektedir. Hüseyin Yıldırım; İrade-i Milliye, Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Dergisi, Sayı: 23 (Mart 1992), s. 325-330. Hüseyin Yıldırım; Cumhuriyet Döneminde Sivas Şehri (1923-1950), İzmir, 1993 (Basılmamış Doktora Tezi), s. 412-415.

104 Aybars; a.g.e., s. 181.

105 M. Tayyip Gökbilgin; Mondros Mütarekesi’nden Sivas Kongresi’ne, I. Kitap, Ankara, 1959, s. 13-14.

106 Selek; a.g.e., s. 282-288.

107 Lord Kinross; Atatürk, s. 302. Browne için bkz. Akdes Nimet Kurat; Sivas Kongresi ve Amerikalı Gazeteci Edgard Louis Browne, Belgelerle Türk Tarihi Dergisi, C. XI, Sayı: 62 (Kasım 1972), s. 13-16.

108 Selek; a.g.e., s. 307-308.

109 Atatürk İle İlgili Arşiv Belgeleri, Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşiv Belgeleri Daire Başkanlığı, Ankara, 1982, s. 67-69 Görüşmelerin Tutanağı.

110 Amasya Görüşmeleri için bkz. Şerafettin Zeybek; “Amasya Mülakatı”, Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Dergisi, Sayı: 14 (Mart 1989), s. 467-477.

111 Nutuk, C. I, s. 300-308. Atatürk, bu olaya Nutuk’ta önemli yer ayırmıştır. Rauf Orbay’ın Hatıraları, Yakın Tarihimiz, C. III, s. 181. Aşkım; a.g.e., s. 173. Kansu; a.g.e., C. II, s. 429-434. İzzet Öztoprak; Milli Mücadele’ye Tepki: Şeyh Recep Olayı, Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Dergisi, Sayı: 13 (Kasım 1988), s. 237-244.

112 Türk İstiklal Harbi, Batı Cephesi, 2. C. 2. Kısım (4 Eylül 1919 - 9 Kasım 1920), Ankara, 1965, s. 29.

113 Aşkım; a.g.e., s. 97-98. “... Şekeroğlu İsmail Efendi’nin Milli Mücadele’deki olağanüstü hizmet ve yararlılıkları yıllar sonra hatırlanacak ve 1961 yılında çıkarılan 280 sayılı özel kanunla eşine vatan hizmeti tertibinde maaş bağlanacaktır.” Mazhar Müfit Kansu da hatıralarında Şekeroğlu İsmail Efendi’den sitayişle söz etmektedir: “... Hemen temas ettiğim bütün yerliler en kuvvetli bir inanç ve iman hissiyle Milli Mücadele ruh ve şuuruna bağlı bulunuyorlar. Bilhassa Şekercizade İsmail Efendi isminde bir zatla tanıştım. Beni dükkanına götürdü. Beraber kahve içtik. Dükkanda daha bir çok Sivaslı tanınmış kimseler vardı. İsmail Efendi beni, fikirlerimi, ileri durum hakkındaki düşüncelerimizi iskandil ederken ben de onun his, düşünce ve fikirlerinde Sivas halkının düşünceleri hakkında bir sondaj yapmış oldum. Gerek İsmail Efendi’ye, gerek dükkanındaki bütün Sivaslıları fevkalade hamiyetli, vatansever, milli davaya ve mücadele azmine inanmış ve hazır bulundum... Sonradan bir arkadaştan Şekercizade İsmail Efendi’nin kongre azasından yirmiye yakın zatı bizzat misafir etmekte bulunduğunu öğrendim. “Kansu; a.g.e., s. 207-209.

114 Mahmut Goloğlu; Sivas Kongresi, Ankara, 1969, s. 227-229. Abdürrauf Efendi’nin torunu Dr. Tahir Tunçalp kendi evlerinde bulunan iki koltuk, iki sandalye ve iki kanepenin, Mustafa Kemal’in kullandığı eşyalar olduğunu söyleyerek; “Mustafa Kemal’in kaldığı oda bugün müze haline getirilmek ve aynı o günkü eşyaları ile muafaza edilmek isteniyor, fakat hakiki eşyalar burada duruyor. Kimse bizden bu eşyaları istemedi. Vermek için bazı teşebbüslerde bulunmak istediğimiz zamanda yeteri kadar ilgi görmedik” demektedir.

115 Kinross; a.g.e., s. 292.

116 “... Binaya girdiğim zaman ilk gözüme ilişen bir manzara beni çok mütehassis etti. Uzun bir tahta masa üzerine örtülmüş adi basmadan sofra örtüsü ile basit sandalyelerden ibaret olan yemek salonunun kapısının önünde bir mektep karatahtası konmuştu. Karatahtanın üzerinde yazılmış yemek listesinde kuru fasulye, pilav, üzüm hoşafı ibaresi vardı. Milli karargahta o günkü akşam yemeğinin bundan ibaret olduğu anlaşılıyordu...” Kılıç Ali, A.g.e., s. 10. “Kongrenin ilk günlerinde delegelerin yemeğini belediye sağladı. Aslında kongrenin bütün yükü belediyenin sırtındaydı. Her şeyle o ilgileniyordu. Yemek işinin bu şekilde çözümü masraflı olduğundan yemekler ilk birkaç günden sonra Sultani’nin alt katındaki mutfakta pişirilmeye başlandı. Aşçı Osman Efendi çok iyi bir ustaydı. Çok nefis yemekler pişiriyordu. Delegelere her gün iki öğün yemek verilirdi. Üç tabaktan az olmazdı yemekler. Çorbadan sonra tas kebabı, pilav ve köfte en çok yapılan yemeklerdi. Kurufasulye de sık yapılıyordu. Osman Efendi, Mustafa Kemal’in en sevdiği yemek olduğunu söylerdi. Yemeklerin giderleri de Sivas’ın zenginlerince karşılanıyordu. Aklımda kaldığına göre yardım edenler şunlardı: Bitlisli Şevket, Karslı Şevki, Darendeli Osman, Hastaların Hilmi Efendiler. Başka bağışta bulunan, giderlere yardım edenlerde oluyordu.” Günay; a.g.e., s. 6.

117 Kinsros; a.g.e., s. 293.

118 Aşkun; a.g.e., s. 124.

119 Necip Ali Küçüka; Atatürk’e Dair Bazı Hatıralar, Ulus, 10.11.1939, s. 13.

120 Aşkun; a.g.e., s. 122.

121 Kinross; a.g.e., s. 293.

122 Aşkım; a.g.e., s. 122-124.

123 İbrahim Özkan; “Atatürk’ün Şehrimizde Geçen Günlerinden Hatıralar”, Sivas Postası, 12 Son Kanun 1942.

124 Muhlis Günay; “Sivas Kongresi’nin Son Tanığı Atatürk’ü Anlatıyor: Mustafa Kemal’in Yüreğinde Korkunun Yeri Yoktu (Talat TALAY)”, Yıllar Boyu Tarih Dergisi, C. X, Sayı: 6 (Haziran 1983), s. 8.

125 Alptekin Müderrisoğlu; Kurtuluş Savaşı’ının Mali Kaynakları, İstanbul, 1981, s. 160-161.

126 Nutuk, C. I, s. 406-408.

127 Karabekir; a.g.e., s. 147.

128 Mazhar Müfit Kansu; Erzurum’dan Ölümüne Kadar Atatürk’le Beraber, C. II, Ankara, 1988 (3. Baskı), s. 481.

129 Kansu; a.g.e., C. II, s. 483.

130 Kansu; a.g.e., C. II, s. 487.

131 Aşkun; a.g.e., s. 175.

132 Sivas’tan Ankara’ya, Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınları, İstanbul, 1983, s. 32.

133 Kansu; a.g.e., C. II, s. 487.

134 Şevket Süreyya Aydemir; Tek Adam, 2. Cilt, İstanbul, 1981, s. 140.

135 Atatürk’ün Tamim Telgraf ve Beyannameleri, 1917-1938, Ankara, 1964, s. 138; İrade-i Milliye, 29 Kanun-u Evvel 1335.

136 İrade-i Milliye Gazetesi’nin 22 Kanun-u Evvel 1335 tarihli nüshasında “Heyet-i Temsiliye Şehrimizden Giderken” başlığı ile Sivaslıların üzüntüleri dile getirilirken yeni muhitlerinde muvaffakiyetler temenni ediliyordu.

137 Cumhurbaşkanı Gazi Mustafa Kemal Paşa’nın Sonbahar Gezileri (Çeviren: Nuri Onat), İstanbul, 1984, s. 5-7.

138 Yapılan bu yurt gezisinin bir özelliği de, gezi sırasında Latife Hanımın da bulunması, bütün yol ve tören yorgunluklarına karşın, Gazi ile birlikte olmasıdır. Latife Hanımın bu gezide bulunuşu, Türk kadınlığında önemli bir gelişine aşaması niteliğindedir. Çeşitli yerlerdeki törenler sırasında Latife Hanımında bulunması, Gazi’nin çevresini bir sevgi çemberi gibi kuşatan kalabalıklara kadınlarında katılmasını sağlamıştır.

139 Mehmet Önder; Atatürk’ün Yurt Gezileri, Ankara, 1975, s 323.

140 .... Sonbahar Gezileri, s. 116-117. Bu olayı Sami Akdeniz, olaya tanık olan ağabeyi Orhan’dan şu şekilde dinlemiştir: “... Akşama doğru bir otomobil kafilesi Gazhane semtine geldiği zaman heyecan ve gösteri doruğa ermişti. Halk “Yaşa Varol!...” sesleriyle büyük liderini alkışlıyordu. Otomobil durdu, elinde bastonu ve yanında Latife Hanım’la otomobilden indiler. Çevresinde bulunanları selamladıktan sonra hazırlanan bir at arabasına binmişlerdi. Kentin güçlü ve aydın gençliği, atları çözerek arabayı kendileri çekmek istemişlerdi. Güler yüzle arabaya binen Atatürk bu durumu görünce önce kaşlarını çatmış ve sert bir tavırla seslenmişti: - Efendiler, Türkler tarih boyunca köle olmamışlardır. Onun için araba çekmezler. Bırakın arabayı hayvanlar çeksin!... Atatürk, Başöğretmen (Derleyen: Muhterem Erenli), İstanbul, 1981, s. 211-212. “Paşa arabasından indikten sonra bir faytona buyur edildi. Yol boyunca halılar döşenmişti Taşlı Sokağa. Paşa’nın bindiği faytonun atları yoktu. Sivaslılar büyük kurtarıcıyı kendileri taşımak istiyorlardı. Bu nedenle faytona atları koşmamışlardı. Karşılayıcıların bir bölümü koşumlara yapıştılar, arabayı kent merkezine doğru yürütmeye başladılar. Arabaya koşulanlar arasında Şekeroğlu İsmail Bey, Hacı Aptizade Rıza Bey, Abdülkadir Sarısözen, Hikmet Işık, Kürt Aziz Bey vardı... Mustafa Kemal Paşa’nın bindiği faytonu vilayet önüne kadar taşıdılar.” Muhlis Günay; Atatürk’ün Boyacısı (Mehmet Temizer), Yıllar Boyu Tarih Dergisi, C. IX, Sayı: 5 (Eylül 1982), s. 29.

141 ... Sonbahar Gezileri, s. 117-118.

142 Önder; a.g.e., s. 323-324.

143 ... Sonbahar Gezileri, s. 117-118.

144 9-10 Ekim 1924 tarihinde Güneydoğu sınırımız, hakkında İngilizlerce verilen bir nota metninin Başbakanlıktan gelmesi üzerine, Gazi bu konudaki görüşlerini bildirerek Meclis’in toplantıya çağrılmasını istedi... Sonbahar Gezileri, s. 134.

145 ... Sonbahar Gezileri, s. 137-138.

146 Önder; a.g.e., s. 324. Hakimiyet-i Milliye, 14 Teşrin-i Evvel 1340.

147 Hakimiyet-i Milliye, 14 Teşrin-i Evvel 1340.

148 15 Ekim 1909 tarihinde yayın hayatına başlayan Kızılırmak Gazetesi’nin kurucusu Kamil Kitapçı’dır. Gazete 1909’dan 1910 yılı sonuna kadar düzenli olarak devam etmiş, neşriyatına daha sonra 1914 yılına kadar ara vermiştir. İkinci çıkışı 1914 yılıdır ve üç sene sürmüştür. Üçüncü çıkışı 1925 yılıdır. 29 Temmuz 1926 tarihine kadar ara vermeden çıkan gazete ara sıra kesintiye uğrayarak 15 Haziran 1940 tarihine kadar çıkmıştır. Bu tarihte “Sivas Postası” adını alan gazete 2 Son Teşrin (Kasım) 1942 tarihinde tekrar Kızılırmak olarak çıkmıştır. Gazete 12 Kasım 1946 tarihine kadar yayınlanmış, yeniden çıkmak için hazırlıklar yapılmış ise “Ülke” Gazetesi onun yerini almıştır. Hüseyin Yıldırım; Cumhuriyet Döneminde Sivas Şehri (1923-1950), (Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi), Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, Atatürk İlkeleri ve inkılâp Tarihi Enstitüsü, İzmir, 1993, s. 423-427.

149 Paçacıoğlu; a.g.e., s. 85-86. Cumhuriyetin ilanından sonra başlayan Türkiye’yi çağdaşlaştırma surecinde yapılan inkılâp hareketleri Sivas’ta da ilgiyle takip edilmiş ve benimsenmişti. Sivas diğer inkılâplarda olduğu gibi Harf İnkılâbı’nda da öncü bir rol oynamıştır. Kızılırmak Gazetesi’nde Harf inkılâbıyla ilgili yazılara henüz inkılâba karar verilmediği 17 Mayıs 1928 tarihinden itibaren başlandığı görülmektedir. O tarihlerde gazetede yer alan “Latin Harfleri Kabul Edilirse”, başlıklı yazı Latin harfleriyle yayımlanmıştı, İstanbul gazeteleri bile basımda Latin harflerine 9 Ağustos 1928 tarihinden itibaren yer vermemeye başlamışlardı. Sözü edilen yazıda bir çok yazım hatası bulunduğu gibi, yazının bazı kısımlarında elde yeterli harf bulunmadığı için Arap harfleri kullanılmıştır. Yazıda ayrıca yazarın haftada beş saat halka latin harflerini öğretmeye hazır olduğunu bildirmesi Harf İnkılâbı’nın gerçekleşmesini ne kadar arzu ettiğini açıkça göstermektedir. Kızılırmak Gazetesi Harf İnkılâbı’yla ilgili gelişmeleri, yetkililerce bu konuda yapılan açıklamaları zamanında halka duyurarak onları bilgi sahibi yapmayı görev saymıştır. Paçacıoğlu; a.g.e., s. 33.

150 Cumhuriyet, 20-21 Eylül 1928. Milliyet; 20-21 Eylül 1928.

151 Atatürk’ün tahta başındaki resmi bu anda çekilmiştir. Sami N. Özerdim; Yazı Devriminin Öyküsü, Ankara, 1978, s. 31. M. Şakir Ülkütaşır; Atatürk ve Harf Devrimi, 2. Baskı, Ankara, 1981, s. 116-120.

152 Cumhuriyet; 21 Eylül 1928.


153 Paçacıoğlu; a.g.e., s. 100-103.154 “Maarif Bakanı Necati Bey, şehrimize geldikleri zaman Türk’ün büyük halaskarı Gazi Paşa Hazretleri’nin Sivas Kongresi’ni yaptığı tarihi salonda, Gazi’nin o zaman kaldıkları odanın bir müze halinde muhafaza edilmesini emretmişlerdi. Aynı zamanda Maarif Bakam, müze müdürünü de bu konuda incelemede bulunmak üzere Sivas’a davet etmişlerdir. Sivas’a gelen müze müdürü de salon ve oda hakkında incelemede bulunmuş ve bir rapor hazırlamıştır. Rapor, Bakanlıkça incelendikten sonra istiklal ve inkılâb amadelerinin ilk temellerinin atıldığı bu salon şerefiyle mütenasip bir şekilde muhafaza olunacaktır. Haber aldığımıza göre kongre salonu o zaman ki şekle getirilecek, verilen kararların suretleri bir tarihçe halinde tesbit olunacak ve kongre azalarının fotoğrafları salona asılacaktır. Gazi Hazretleri’nin kaldıkları oda da, eşyası da aynı vaziyette korunacaktır... Bütün bunların iki aya kadar ikmal edileceği tahmin edilmektedir...” Kızılırmak, 7 Temmuz 1928.

155 Cumhuriyet; 17 Teşrin-i Sairi 1930.

156 Cumhuriyet; 18 Teşrin-i Sairi 1930.

157 Cumhuriyet; 20 Teşrin-i Sairi 1930.

158 Cumhuriyet; 21 Teşrin-i Sairi 1930. Sivas; 24 ikinci Teşrin 1930. Atatürk ve Eğitim (Hazırlayan: Ahmet Bekir Palazoğlu), Ankara, 1980, s. 80-81.

159 Cumhuriyet; 21 Teşrin-i Sani 1930. Sivas; 24 İkinci Teşrin 1930. Ahmet Hamdi Başar; Atatürk’le Üç Ay ve 1930’dan Sonra Türkiye, 2. Baskı, Ankara, 1981, s. 29. “... Sivas’ta Hükümet Konağı’nda verilen akşam yemeğinde kalabalık bir davetli huzurunda... Sivas’ın ne kadar kalbur üstü insanı varsa hepsi de orada idi.”

160 Önder; a.g.e., s. 325.

161 Ulus, 14 Kasım 1937. Ayın Tarihi, Sayı: 48 (1-30 Son Teşrin 1937), Ankara, 1937, s. 6. Cumhuriyet; 13 İkinci Teşrin 1937.

162 “Sivas-Divrik hattının işletmeye açılma ve Diyarbakır-Cizre hattının temel atma törenlerinde bulanacak olanları hâmil hususi tren bugün saat 16’da Ankara’dan Sivas’a hareket etmiştir. Trende mebuslar, Nafıa Vekaleti, siyasi ve idare müsteşarı, Devlet Demiryolları İşletme Umum Müdürü ve Matbuat mümessilleri bulunmaktadır.” Cumhuriyet; 13 İkinci Teşrin 1937.

163 Cumhuriyet, 14 İkinci Teşrin 1937.

164 Bu tarihsel olaya Sivas Lisesi öğrencisi olarak tanık olan Ömer L. Örnekol’un anısı. Sivas Lisesi 100 Yıl, 1887-1987, Sivas, (t.y.), (s.y.). Atatürk ve Eğitim..., s. 142-145. Atatürk, III. Türk Dil Kurultayı’ndan hemen sonra 1936-1937 yılı kış aylarında Dolmabahçe Sarayı’nda kendi eliyle bir geometri kitabı yazmıştır. 1937 yılında İstanbul’da Devlet Basımevi’nde basılan kitabın kapağında önemle belirtildiği gibi, Atatürk’ün bu yapıtı, “geometri” öğrenenlere, bu konuda kitap yazacaklara kılavuz olarak Kültür Bakanlığınca neşredilmiştir. “Yazar adı yok, fakat yazının ruhu ve tutumu, onun, Atatürk’ten çıkmış olduğunu apaçık gösterir. 44 sayfalık kitapta “boyut, uzay, yüzey, düzey, çap, yarıçap, kesek, kesit, yay, çember, teğet, açı, açıortay, içters açı, dışters açı, taban, eğik, kırık, çekül, yatay, düşey, dikey, yöndeş, konum, üçgen, dörtgen, beşgen, köşegen, eşkenar, ikizkenar, paralelkenar, yanal, yamuk, artı, eksi, çarpı, bolü, eşit, toplam, oran, orantı, türev, alan, varsayı, gerekçe” gibi terimler hep bu amaçla Atatürk tarafından türetilip konmuştur. Geometri, 2. Baskı, TDK Yayınları, Ankara, 1981. 165 Cumhuriyet; 14 İkinci Teşrin 1937. Ulus; 14 Kasım 1937. Hüseyin Yıldırım

Source: ATATÜRK ARAŞTIRMA MERKEZİ DERGİSİ, Sayı 36, Cilt: XII, Kasım 1996  

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