Atatürk's Principles and Kemalist Contemporary Thought

Atatürk's Principles and Kemalist Contemporary Thought
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The direction of the idea in the Turkish Revolution is expressed as Kemalism. The intellectual power of the Turkish revolution and the principles on which it is based are called "Ataturk's Principles".


The basic thought systems accepted by the nations are ultimately a general cultural element for every geography where it emerged or for every nation it belongs to. Nations can adopt different thought systems. However, in societies that adopt the same way of thinking, the result of the application of the system may be different. The reasons for the difference in the result are the possible variability in practice as well as the existence of different subcultural elements in the society.

The situation is not different in Turkish society. Turks, like other nations, have faced or come into contact with different thought systems in the historical process. These systems of thought have affected the Turkish nation only within the framework of the value provisions they have accepted. In other words, the thought systems encountered were influenced and influenced by Turkish culture, and Turkish culture was also shaped by these thought systems.

Turkish culture has shown a remarkable ability and value of influence and influence in cultural relations and exchange of cultures. Turkish culture is a culture that respects other cultures, does not see the need to put pressure on them, is tolerant and confident. Therefore, Turkish culture has a great power to protect itself, to endure, to live and to keep it alive. Even though it is not a closed culture, Turkish culture has always known its personality in the face of other cultures1. For this reason, the Turkish state tradition has always united and united people. Turks evaluated people with cultural and biological differences in terms of their unity and integrity. In this respect, human rights and tolerance have become inseparable qualities of the Turkish nation.

According to Atatürk, everyone who feels Turkish is Turkish. However, this acceptance based on feelings in the sociological sense expresses the understanding that depends on the cultural unity, unlike the West. In such a feeling, the consciousness of belonging to the State of the Republic of Turkey, which is a spiritual and cultural consensus above all tribes, tribes, tribes and tribes, is at the forefront.

By examining Turkish culture in the historical course, Atatürk drew the framework of the thought system that would raise the modern Turkish people. His understanding of Turkish identity is to keep alive a cultural understanding suitable for the character and history of the Turk. This kind of identity and culture understanding found its expression in the philosophy that formed the basis of the new Turkish Republic. The philosophy that Atatürk tried to put forward in his statement "The foundation of the Republic of Turkey is culture" is a system of thought that includes an understanding that will eliminate the disconnections with contemporary thought and contemporary life that existed during the establishment of the new Turkish State.

However, it is not only the liberation of the country and the founding of a homogeneous state with full independence that glorifies Atatürk's work. Perhaps the most important of the events that immortalized him are the measures he took to preserve the independence of the state he rebuilt forever. These measures can be expressed as “Turkish Revolution” and “Turkish Modernization Movement”. When it comes to modernization, it is meant all of the reforms that Atatürk made in order to raise the Turkish society above the level of contemporary civilization2.

Turks have always shown great ability to adopt advanced civilizations throughout history. Turkish modernization aims to ensure the harmony between the Turkish cultural environment, which developed in different environments, and the western cultural environment, and to preserve these differences to some extent, despite the differences in elements such as language, religion, history, art, folklore, tradition and custom3. Turkish modernization is a stage and a set of experiments in terms of intercultural relations and harmony in the development of humanity. The environment of free thought and knowledge is expanded with the Turkish modernization movement, and an example of the development of the western cultural environment outside the Christian element, outside the area dominated by Christianity, is given4.

One of the aims of turning to contemporary civilization is to develop our own culture with scientific methods, to raise it above the level of contemporary civilization with its "own values ​​and characteristics" by feeding it from its own resources from the public. Thus, to open contemporary horizons “within its own characteristics” to the national culture, which has been corrupted, sterilized and despised for centuries under the influence of foreign cultures, in other words, to create a “Renaissance” in Turkish culture5.

According to Atatürk, the indispensable element of the Turkish renaissance, in other words, Turkish modernization, is national independence. Atatürk expresses this fact with the following words: “No victory is the goal. Victory is only the main means to achieve a goal greater than itself, the goal is an idea. Victory that is not based on the production of this idea cannot stand, it is essential for the young Republic of Turkey to stand out, to become a partner and a part of modern civilization, for the preservation of the independence provided by a thousand sacrifices. Turkish modernization has been one of the aims of our National Struggle movement, and even a renewed goal in every phase of the Turkish Revolution and in every age. XX. The connection between the Turkish thought and mentality environment at the beginning of the century and the contemporary, social, political and economic practices of the West, It has been tried to be established with the Kemalist mindset and Kemalist mentality and great distances have been taken. Kemalism is the focus of thought that those who adopt harmonious breakthroughs at the age level as a permanent lifestyle in thought and practice6. Integrative Principles Based on the Turkish Revolution

Atatürk distinguished himself as a statesman, commander-in-chief and a man of ideas. In the history of the world, the number of those who base their actions and struggles on the idea as statesman and commander-in-chief is limited. Because the idea, which means analyzing and synthesizing based on social sciences, requires both knowledge and culture, as well as aptitude7. The Turkish revolution, brought about by historical developments, is the successful state of an idea and ideal. The direction of the idea in the Turkish Revolution is expressed as Kemalism. The intellectual power of the Turkish revolution and the principles on which it is based are called "Ataturk's Principles".

The birth and development of six principles, which are considered as the basic principles of Kemalism, were not at the beginning of the Turkish revolution. The principles of “Secularism, Statism and Revolutionism” were added to the principles of “Republicanism, Populism and Nationalism”8 included in the first statute of the Republican People's Party, at the party's 3rd congress in 1931. With the constitutional amendment made on February 5, 1937, the six principles included in the CHP's statutes were included in the constitution as the characteristics of the Republic of Turkey.

The aim of the Turkish Revolution; To ensure national modernization is to bring a new shape and understanding to Turkish society. Turkish revolution; It is a Turkish renaissance based on independence, free thought and human dignity9. Based on this understanding, Mustafa Kemal Pasha determined that the first thing to do is to "Turkify the Turks all over again"10. Prospective development and preservation of these ideals is possible with the real application of Atatürk's Principles.

In addition to the six Atatürk Principles, the principles of “National Domination”, “National Independence” and “National Unity”, which are complementary to these principles, are among the elements existing in the foundation of the Republic of Turkey. When considered together with Atatürk's principles, the definition of Kemalism will be better understood.

a. National Domination

National Sovereignty is the nation's self-government, choosing a committee to rule itself. In other words, it is the power given to the state by the people. In this case, dominance belongs to the whole nation, not to one person, group or majority. The concept of National Sovereignty, which originated in the West, entered our political life with the National Struggle. Atatürk acted on the concept of “National Domination” by putting the stamp of the Turks and his own high ideas. While explaining the concept of National Sovereignty, Atatürk focused on the nation and the idea of ​​the Turkish Nation and insisted on it11.

In the report dated May 22, 1919, which Mustafa Kemal Pasha sent from Samsun to the Grand Viziership, “The nation has accepted the principle of National Sovereignty and Turkish Nationalism. He will work for this”12 statement is important in terms of showing the target of the National Struggle movement.

The main idea that emerged in the Amasya Circular and the Erzurum and Sivas Congresses was determined as "to establish a new Turkish State independent of the Sovereignty-i Milliye" and this ideal formed the basis of the new state with the opening of the first BMM. This situation gained a legal identity when the 1921 and 1924 Constitutions included the principle of “Sovereignty unconditionally belongs to the nation”.

According to M. Kemal Pasha, “The continuous provision and protection of the highest freedom, the highest equality and justice in society depends only on the establishment of national sovereignty in a complete and absolute sense. Therefore, the basis of freedom, equality and justice is national sovereignty. “13

b. National Independence (Independence)

Political independence means not being affiliated with another state or any international organization. National Independence emerges when the nation adopts this idea and takes it as a goal. For the Turkish Nation, “independence” is a character that cannot be given up and compromised.

Mustafa Kemal Pasha's understanding of independence is unconditional independence:

“When it is said, “Independence is complete, Istiklal-i complete and free-i full in all respects, of course, political, financial, economic, judicial, military, moral and divine. Deprivation of independence in any of these I have mentioned means the deprivation of all independence with the true meaning of the nation and country.”

“Istiklal-i complete is the spirit of the duty we prefer today. This duty has also been preferred against the whole nation and history. “I5

The desire of the Turkish nation to gain independence lies at the heart of the National Struggle Movement against the imperialist states of the West. The principle of “the independence of the nation is not and will not be given up” was accepted in Anatolian Congresses. The new Turkish State, which was established on this basis, took its place in international life with the Lausanne Peace Treaty, and the victory of the National Struggle was confirmed by this treaty in terms of the international level16.

With the achievement of the idea of ​​full independence envisaged by the National Pact as a result of military and political successes, the Republic of Turkey will live forever with the preservation of our understanding of independence.

c. National Unity

“National unity and togetherness mean living together and integrity as a nation. National Unity and solidarity indicates that the people who make up the Turkish State are connected to each other with mutual love and respect, and that they continue to exist for common purposes.

National unity and togetherness is a natural result of the principle of nationalism and a manifestation of the common goals envisaged by the principle of nationalism. Since national unity and solidarity also express the unity and unity of the nation, it is also a means of realizing the national state.”17

Mustafa Kemal Pasha expressed the meaning of national unity as follows:

“The most valuable asset of a homeland is the sense of national unity, well-being and industriousness among its citizens, and the maturity of their abilities. Deciding to put forth the life and everything of all citizens in order to protect the nation's existence and the maturity of the country is the most invincible weapon and means of protection of a nation. For this reason, national unity, national feeling, national culture are the ideals that we look forward to at the highest level in the administration and protection of the Turkish Nation. “18 “As the years pass, the national ideal yields become more visible in the form of national unity and national will in safe work, enthusiasm for progress. This is very important to us; because we see the basis of the national existence in the national consciousness and in the national unity. “i9

As it is seen, Mustafa Kemal Pasha always emphasized that modernization can only be realized with all the members of the newly established state. In addition, he believes that the strengthening of national consciousness and the feeling of being a nation will only achieve success by placing Turkish culture and Turkish history on a national basis20. According to him, the foundation of the Turkish Republic is culture21.

For the realization of national unity, the people gathered under the roof of the Republic of Turkey must first become conscious of what they are and know from which common culture they come from22. Today, all citizens of the Republic of Turkey; Regardless of their race, religion or denomination, they are all Turkish in unity and integrity23. This understanding forms the basis of Turkish nationalism.

The Basic Principles on which the Turkish Revolution is Based (Ataturk's Principles)

a. Republicanism

The word “Republic” has entered our language from the Arabic word “Cumhur”24. This word means the people, the people, the great crowd. A republic or a republican state means a form of state that stipulates that the power belongs to the nation and the general public.

Republic is used in a narrow and broad sense. In a broad sense, with the Republic, sovereignty belongs to the whole community, to the nation. In the narrow sense, the Republic only means that the head of state is elected directly or indirectly by the people for a certain period of time25.

As a result of the adoption of the principle of Republic, National Sovereignty26 in Turkey, the amendment dated 29 October 1923 made in the 1921 Organization-ı Esasiye Law was accepted only as a form of government. It was also accepted as a form of government in our 1924, 1961 and 1982 constitutions.

The most important reason why Atatürk chose the Republic as a political regime of the state; It is the only regime form that responds to the efforts to modernize Turkey. Atatürk, who described the Republic as a virtue, defines the Republic as follows in a speech dated October 1924:

In 1937, with the amendment made in the 1924 constitution, “Republicanism” was included among the features of the state. Republicanism means to adopt the Republic as the political regime of the state and to define and evaluate it as a regime of virtue.

The principle of republicanism is closely related to the principle of National Sovereignty, which constitutes one of the foundations of Atatürk's understanding of the state. The protection and observance of the National Sovereignty is possible with the republican regime.

The principle of the Republic, which we evaluate within the Kemalist thought system, is a principle that embraces the integrity of the nation, not the individuals, and belongs to the Turkish nation.

The republican regime envisaged by the principle of republicanism has something to do with democracy. In fact, the Republic is the most advanced form of democracy. Atatürk also expressed this by saying, “Republican regime means democracy system and state form”28.

The republic in Turkey has followed a course of development in accordance with the ideal of reaching the state form in the modern sense, which is also envisaged in the principle of republicanism.

The republic in Turkey has become the name of the political regime that all citizens share and benefit from, regardless of race, religion, language and gender. The principle of equality has constituted the essence of the Republic of Turkey29.

The new Turkish State, whose state form is a republic, expresses the understanding of the nation-state above the national borders, the unity and integrity of the nation and the state, drawn with the Pact of the Nation30. Atatürk evaluated this unity in the speech he gave on 14 October 1925 in İzmir as follows: There is no longer any separation between the government and the nation. The government is the nation, the nation is the government.”

As a result, the Republic, as the most developed state form, is the result and success of the Turkish Revolution.

b. Nationalism

Nationalism is a movement of ideas based on the reality of the nation and is the most valid social policy principle of our age. Nationalism is not only a basic principle of the Turkish Revolution, but also a fundamental principle that determines the destiny of the Turkish nation, a lofty ideal, and a bond that leads the nation to peace and prosperity31.

Since the principle of nationalism is based on the concepts of nation and nationality, it is necessary to understand these concepts.

It can be described as the "human community". It may vary according to the characteristics of these “essential” human communities gathered around it. This “essential” may consist of the concepts of “culture” in France, “race” in Germany, “language” in Arabs, “nationality” in the USA. Human communities must gather around at least one of these ties to become a nation. On the other hand, communities affiliated with more than one or all of these ties are called nationalities32.

There is a consensus among our scholars that there is more than one of these ties for the Turks of Turkey. However, the findings are different. Yusuf Akçura refers to these principles as “language” and “ancestry”33. Ziya Gokalp34 and İ. H. Danishmend35 adds the notions of culture and religion to these principles.

Atatürk's definition of nation is as follows: “The nation is a political and social committee composed of citizens bound together by the unity of language, culture and ideals.”36

While describing the Turkish nation, Atatürk expands this definition a little more and identifies the elements that make up the nation as unity in political existence, unity of language, unity of homeland, unity of race and origin, historical proximity and moral closeness. This recipe states that the Turkish nation has a rich culture and civilization.

Nationalism is also expressed as "the feeling of nationality, citizenship, nationality" as the bond that binds the individual and the community. However, there is a difference between nation and nationalism. Nationality is the state of being a member of a nation, being attached to a nation. Nationalism, on the other hand, is the sense of loyalty and consciousness of people belonging to a nation towards the nation they belong to. The feeling of loyalty that a person feels towards the mass he belongs to constitutes the basis and root of the feeling of nation37.

Atatürk's understanding of nationalism gives place and value especially to the unity and solidarity of the Turkish nation. Atatürk's understanding of nationalism is unifying and gathering and for the benefit of the nation38. This understanding is based on the reality of the Turkish nation and is based on it. It is realistic. It expresses the ideal of the Turkish nation to rise and reach modern nations. It is based on protecting the values ​​that make up the Turkish nation39.

Considering nationalism as the love of the nation and the love of trusting the nation, Atatürk wanted the younger generations to grow up with this feeling and thought. He accomplished the War of Independence and his reforms with this great national feeling40.

Atatürk's nationalism values ​​freedom and human personality. Indeed, real nationalism arises from freedom, which is the essence of civilization. The national spirit cannot develop in a society that is not free and consents to servitude. The basis of this belief is as follows: “Turkishness for a Turk is and will remain strong to the extent that he is free.”41

Atatürk's understanding of nationalism is egalitarian, based on the idea of ​​equality, and the source of this understanding is “National Domination”. It aims at democracy and sees the first stage of achieving this as possible with the acceptance and implementation of the principle of “Sovereignty unconditionally belongs to the nation”42.

“They call us nationalists, but we are such nationalists that we respect and obey all nations that cooperate with us. We know the realities of all their nationalities. Our nationalism is probably not a selfish and haughty nationalism.” With these words, Atatürk expresses that our nationalism carries a peaceful meaning in international relations and respectful to other nations.

Nationalism is rational, constructive, creative and idealistic. Turkish nationalism, which has these features, expresses the modern understanding. The beginning of this understanding in the modern sense is independence and the result is democracy.

Turkish nationalism is a belief, a feeling. There is the basis of the unity of the homeland in that belief and feeling43. It is a spiritual bond formed by social and cultural activities44. This bond, which expresses a classless and unprivileged society, is an ideal that always feels its excitement in the past and in the future.

According to Atatürk, nationalism is not a racism, but a matter of conscience and emotion45. It is a system based on human rights and freedom, valuing cultural values46.

c. Populism

The meaning of the folk idiom used in our language is the community of people. It has the same meaning as the word "people" in the old language. In the Ottoman Empire, the term "folk" meant the community of people who were outside the intellectual group. It was argued for the first time by Ziya Gökalp that “the people” meant the Turkish Nation. With Atatürk, it has settled in our national consciousness47. According to the Turkish state tradition, the state exists for the people. Public service is an administrative structure that exists to protect and feed the people. While this meaning of the people was on the verge of being forgotten in the last period of the Ottoman Empire, it regained the expression and importance it deserved with the Turkish Revolution.

According to the understanding of the Turkish Revolution, there is a unity, an equivalence between the people and the nation. However, the people are not yet conscious of the sense of solidarity of the nation. The nation emerges when the human community, which we call the people, becomes conscious by focusing on certain goals. The Turkish people constitute the human element of the Turkish State. The Turkish nation is the gaining of value in the political and social field with the development of the Turkish people in the consciousness of Turkishness. The Turkish nation is not made up of peoples. As a result, the human element of the Turkish State is not constituted by the peoples48. The Turkish people represent the entirety of the citizens, regardless of their religion or race, as well as their citizens49.

Populism is a result of the idea of ​​nationalism. In the real sense, nationalism is based on populism and has a populist characteristic. “The people of Turkey are the heroic sons of a people who have lived free and independent for centuries and considered independence a necessity. This nation has not lived away from independence, cannot and will not live.” In his words, Atatürk stated that the understanding of populism is against the order of exploitation.

In Atatürk's understanding of populism, a free social order, united by the democratic principles of the human community, was envisaged. In this order, the people govern themselves according to democratic principles. The political regime is used for the benefit of the people. According to Atatürk, populism in modern republican Turkey:

a. democracy,

b. Not granting privileges among individuals,

c. It is not to accept class struggles51.

D. Statism

When examined within the framework of Atatürk's Revolutions, we see that statism expresses two meanings in narrow and broad sense. When considered in a broad sense, it is a political practice that reveals the characteristics of economic, social and cultural development applied in Turkey. In the narrow sense, they are applications in the economic field with economic principles that include private enterprise. However, since the main applications of statism in Turkey are seen in the economy, statism has an economic meaning.

In Turkey, statism has developed in the form of a mixed economy. Mixed economy means the coexistence of state management and private enterprise. However, this understanding does not mean the application of a strict statism in the economy52.

Atatürk's Statism: “It is a system specific to Turkey, born out of Turkey's needs... Although it is based on the work of the person, in order to bring prosperity to the nation and develop the country in as little time as possible, especially in the works required by the general and high interests of the nation. It is one of our important principles to be actively involved with the state in the field. He describes it as “53.

With statism, Atatürk thought of the state as a power that supports economic life. The state is obliged to give direction to the investor, producer, distributor, consumer and to supervise such matters.

Atatürk evaluated statism entirely within the regime of democracy and freedom, and prioritized the guidance of the state in the economic field54. However, this guidance does not mean that the state does everything.

Atatürk says the following about statism in 1936:

“The meaning of statism in our opinion is as follows: To base the private initiatives and personal activities of individuals; but taking into account all the needs of a great nation and a large country and that many things have not been done, to include the economy of the country within the state.”

“Statism is particularly social, moral and national. The state and the individual (private enterprise) are not opposed to each other, but complement each other. “55

As it is seen, Atatürk accepts the existence of "individual enterprise and interest" as a natural phenomenon in the basis of economic development. Although he considers it the duty of the government to set a limit on the economic activity of the individual's enterprise, he thinks that this limit may change over time56.

to. Secularism

The word secular is a French word taken from the Latin -laicus-. It is used as -laic, laique- in French. It means non-spiritual person, non-religious thing, idea, institution, principle. In the Catholic world, the clergy class consisting of clergy was called -Clerge-, and Christians who were not included in this class were called -laic-.

Secularism is defined as "taking worldly affairs apart from religious affairs and religious authority". Today, secularism in the legal sense; The separation of state and religious affairs is the state's impartiality in the realization of freedom of conscience. In other words; the withdrawal of the state from between Allah and the servant and the non-interference of religion in state affairs, that is, the separation of the jurisdictions of reason and faith57.

The word secularism was used for the first time in the constitutional period as "la religion", "la clergy". However, without expressing the word secular, it can be said that this understanding is present in the Turks, although not in the modern sense58. The modern meaning of the word secular today begins with the Tanzimat. Freedom of religion and sect was envisaged in the Gülhane Line Humayun, and with the eleventh article of the 1876 “Kanun-i Esasi”, the orientation towards secularism was guaranteed by the constitution. This situation was preserved in the same way with the Law-u Esasi of 1909. In the "Teşkilat-ı Esasiye Kanunu" (Teşkilat-ı Esasiye Kanunu) of 1921, the new Turkish State took a further step towards realizing the understanding of secularism by prioritizing the principle of national sovereignty. Finally, both in the constitutions of the Ottoman State and in the new Turkish State in 1921, The phrase "Islam is the religion of the state", which had preserved its existence in the 1924 constitutions, was abolished with a constitutional amendment made with the Law No. 1222 dated April 10, 1928, and "secularism" took its place as a constitutional principle with the Law No. Secularism, which constituted the basis of the reforms carried out by Atatürk, directed the material, moral and intellectual structure of the Turkish Nation in the direction of modernization59.

The principle of secularism took its place among the basic principles of the new Turkish State as a normal requirement of the principle of National Sovereignty that emerged from the congresses period. According to Atatürk, religion is a matter of conscience. Respect for religion is a result of respect for the rights of the believer. The best evidence for this is Atatürk's words;

“Religion is a matter of conscience. Everyone is free to obey the orders of conscience. We respect religion. Thought and thinking are not dissidents. We just try not to mix religious affairs with state affairs. “61

In Turkey, the secularization of the state and the inclusion of secular values ​​in the life of society were seen as the definitive end of religion's fulfilling a political function in the life of the state. Secularism, which is the result of political, social, legal and economic necessity62, therefore covers the fields of law, education and language along with the state administration63. “Our religion is the most reasonable and natural religion. And that's why, it has became the last religion. For a religion to be natural, it must correspond to reason, science, science and logic. Our religion is completely in agreement with them. “64

In Atatürk's understanding of religion and secularism, we see the love of the nation as well as the respect for his religion. In the Turkish Revolution that he carried out, secularism should not be considered as anti-religion, but as a reliable guarantee of freedom of religion and free thought65 in social life.

f. revolutionism

Revolutionism refers to a forward, development-oriented meaning. A revolutionary society is in constant development. As a result of historical and social developments, setting rules to meet the needs of the society is a characteristic of the revolutionary society.

For this purpose, Atatürk; “Lords, the aim of the revolutions we have made and are making is to bring the people of the Republic of Turkey into a civilized society with all its modern meanings and descriptions." .

Atatürk's understanding of revolutionism, which dates the Turkish revolution as "to demolish the institutions that have left the Turkish nation behind in the last centuries, and to replace them with a new institution that will ensure the progress of the nation according to the highest civil requirements"61, is to protect and defend these institutions.

While establishing rules that meet social needs as a result of social developments, scientific search and evaluation of developments in the light of science is a requirement of the Turkish Revolution's understanding of revolutionism68.

Behind Atatürk's understanding of revolution was the effort to benefit the Turkish people from world culture and civilization69. However, since the Turkish Revolution always arises from the needs of the Turks, this understanding has a peculiarity of its own70.

NOTE: This conference was given on behalf of Atatürk Research Center Presidency on 19.03.1998 in Kurtalan.

1 Muharrem Ergin, Turkey's Current Issues, Ankara, 1988, p. 29.

2 Abdurrahman Çaycı, “Atatürk and Modernization”, Kemalist Thought (Collective Works), AAM spring, Ankara, 1992, p. 642.

3 Suat İlhan, “Turkish Modernization”, Kemalist Thought (Collective Works), AAM spring, Ankara, 1992, p. 628.

4 İlhan, agn., p. 624.

5 Çaycı, agni., p. 650.

6 Suat İlhan, Evolving Turkish Revolution, AAM pub., Ankara, 1998, p. 170.

7 Aydın Taneri, Definition of Kemalism, Ankara, 1983, p. 5.

8 Klaus Von Beyme, “Kemalism, Proceedings and Discussions According to Western and Marxist Development Theories”, Türkiye İş Bankası International Atatürk Symposium 17-22 May 1981, Ankara, 1983, ş. 263.

9 İsmet Giritli, Kemalism Ideology, Ankara, 1988, p. one.

10 Charles H. Sherrill, Gazi Mustafa Kemal from an Ambassador, (Translated by Alp Ilgaz), Translator 1001 Fundamental Work No: 23, (His date and place of publication are not written), p. 213.

11 Aydın Taneri, Atatürk and the National Sovereignty, Ankara, 1983, p. 13.

12 Tevfik Bıyıkoğlu, Atatürk in Anatolia, Ankara, 1959, p. 50.

13 Hamza Eroğlu, Atatürk and National Sovereignty, Ankara, 1987, p. 73.; Utkan Kocaturk, Ataturk's Ideas and Thoughts, Ankara 1984, p. 24.

14 Enver Ziya Karal, Thoughts from Atatürk, Istanbul, 1986, p. 8.

15 Karal, supra, p. 7.

16 Hamza Eroğlu, History of Turkish Revolution, Istanbul, 1982, p. 453.

17 Eroglu, supra, p. 455.

18 Atatürk's Circular, Telegram and Declarations, Ankara, 1991, p. 643.

19 Kocatiirk, supra, p. 175.

20 Özkan Izgi, “Atatürk and National Unity”, Journal of Atatürk Research Center, Vol. IV, p. 12, Ankara, 1988, p. 671,

21 Atatürk's Words on Culture and Civilization, Atatürk Culture, Language and History High Institution Publication, Ankara, 1990, p. 3.

22 lzgi, agm, p. 672.

23 Toktamış Ateş, “What a Nationalism…”, Milliyet, 10.3.1993, p. 17.

24 Words of the Republic; “Ruled by the Republic” in Şemsettin Sami's Kâmus-ı Türki, “Cemaat-ı kesire, folk, nas” in Hüseyin Kazım's Great Turkish Dictionary, “People, folk, nas” in Ferit Develioğlu's Ottoman-Turkish Dictionary. population, crowd, rambling crowd”.

25 Eroglu, supra, p. 381.

26 Kemalism, Ataturk's Views and Directives, (Book I), General Staff Press, Ankara, 1982, p. 27.

27 Karal, supra, p. 41.

28 A. Afet İnan, Memories and Documents About Atatürk, Ankara, 1959, p. 251.

29 Hamza Eroğlu, Atatürk and the Republic, Ankara, 1989, p. 58.

30 Eroglu, supra, p. 104.

31 Hamza Eroğlu, “Nation and Nationalism According to Atatürk”, Atatürk Yolu, (Collective Work), (Ed. Turhan Feyzioğlu), Ankara, 1987, p. 133.

32 İsmail Hami Danishmend, Turkish Issues, II. Print, Istanbul, 1976, p. 12.

33 Yusuf Akçura, Pioneers of the New Turkish State -Writings of the year 1928-, (Haz. Neat Sefercioğlu), Ankara, 1981, p. 5.

34 Ziya Gokalp, Principles of Turkism, (Haz. Mehmet Kaplan), Istanbul, 1976, p. 18.

35 Danishmend, supra, p. 15.

36 A. Afet Inan, Civil Information and Mustafa Kemal Ataturk's Handwriting, Ankara, 1969, p. 18.

37 Sadri Maksudi Arsal, Sociological Principles of the Sense of Nationality, Istanbul, 1955, p. 52-53.

38 Hamza Eroğlu, History of Turkish Revolution, p. 409.

39 Ahmet B. Ercilasun, “Atatürk's Understanding of Nationalism and Language”, 100th Anniversary Atatürk Conferences, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources Publication, Ankara, 1981, p. 71.

40 İbrahim Kafesoğlu-Mehmet Saray, Atatürk's Principles and Historical Foundations, Istanbul, 1983, p. 61.

41 Eroglu, supra, p. 403.

42 Süleyman Arslan, “Atatürk Nationalism”, 100th Anniversary Atatürk Conferences, En. and of course Kayn. see. Publication, Ankara, 1981, p. 18.

43 Necat Tuzun, Ataturk's Nationalism, Ankara 1987, p. 10.

44 Turhan Olcaytu, What Does Our Religion Order? What Did Atatürk Do? Our Revolution, Our Principles, 7th Edition, Ankara, 1984, p. 53.

45 İsmet Giritli, Kemalism Ideology, Ankara, 1988, p. 30.

46 Aydın Taneri, Definition of Kemalism, p. 15.

47 Necat Tuzun, Ataturk's Populism, Ankara, 1987, p. 3.

48 Eroğlu, Ibid., p. 415.

49 Tuzun, Ibid., p. 3.

50 Eroglu, Age, p. 418.

51 Kafesoğlu-Saray, Ibid., p. 28.; A. Afet Inan, The Republic of Turkey and the Turkish Revolution, Ankara, 1973, p. 116.

52 Mustafa A. Aysan, “Atatürk's Economic View”, Atatürk Yolu, (Collective Work), (Ed. Turhan Feyzioğlu), Ankara, 1987, p. 80.; Eroglu, Age, p. 434.

53 Afet Inan, Ibid., p. 121.

54 Mumtaz Turhan, Ataturk's Principles and Development, Istanbul, 1965, p. 53-54.

55 Karal, Ibid., p. 106.

56 Olcaytu, Ibid., p. 264.

57 Yavuz Abadan, Public Law and State Theories, Ankara, 1952, p. 113-114.; Kafesoglu-Saray, Age, p. 124.; Ali Fuad Başgil, Religion and Secularism, 6th edition, Istanbul, 1991, p. 163-164.

58 For more information on this subject, see Kafesoğlu-Saray, Ibid., p. 125-132.; Bahaeddin Ögel, Development Ages of Turkish Culture, Ankara, 1979.; İbrahim Kafesoğlu, Old Turkish Religion, Ankara, 1980.; Sadri Maksudi Arsal, Turkish History and Law, Istanbul, 1947.

59 Olcaytu, Ibid., p. 160th; Turhan Feyzioğlu, “The Foundation Stone of the Turkish Revolution-Secularism”, Atatürk Yolu, (Collective Work), Ankara, 1987, p. 224.

60 Tank Zafer Tunaya, Islamism Movement, Istanbul, 1991, p. 169.

61 Utkan Kocaturk, Ataturk's Ideas and Thoughts, Ankara, p. 193.

62 Eroglu, History of Turkish Revolution, p. 431.

63 Necat Tuzun, Secularism in Ataturk's Revolutions, Ankara, 1987, p. 7.

64 Atatürk's Speeches and Statements, Vol. II, p. 90.

65 İsmet Giritli, Political Regime-Secularism and Atatürk, Atatürk and Turkey of Republican Era, (Union Of Chambers of Commerce, Industry, Maritime Commerce and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey), Ankara, 1981, p. 97.

66 Herbert Melzig, Atatürk's Major Speeches (1920-1938), Ülkü Press, Istanbul, 1942, p. 93.

67 Melzig, Ibid., p. 97-101.; A. Afet Inan, The Republic of Turkey and the Turkish Revolution, p. one hundred.

68 Eroglu, Ibid., p. 442.

69 Johannes Glasneck, Kemal Atatürk and Contemporary Turkey, (trans. Arif Gelen), Ankara 1976, p. 228.

70 Yusuf Kemal Tengirşenk, Turkish Revolution, Economic Changes, Istanbul, 1935, p. 5.

Prof. Dr. E. Semih Yalcin*

*Gazi University Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of History, Lecturer

Source: ATATÜRK ARAŞTIRMA MERKEZİ DERGİSİ, Sayı 41, Cilt: XIV, Temmuz 1998

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Atatürk's Principles and Kemalist Contemporary Thought