Descendants of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Descendants of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
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With this study, an important part of Atatürk's biography, lineage and family has been tried to be written in a way that leaves no room for discussion, based on archival documents.



As we see in the life of every great leader, there are some controversial issues in Atatürk's biography, which are caused by the lack of information and documents. Turkish scientific life has clarified many of these issues based on documents today. However, it is seen that there are still some mistakes in some issues. In this, as well as the role of not taking into account the archival documents related to Atatürk; Some purposeful publications also have an effect.

With this study, an important part of Atatürk's biography, lineage and family has been tried to be written in a way that leaves no room for discussion, based on archival documents. Undoubtedly, there will be deficiencies in this research as well. It is natural that these will be completed in time with new documents.


Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was born in 1881 (Rumi 1296) in Thessaloniki, in Koca Kasım Paşa Mahallesi Islahhane Street, in a three-storey house that is now a museum. His father was Ali Rıza Efendi, who was a timber trader at that time, and his mother was Zübeyde Hanım. His paternal grandfather, Kızıl Hafız Ahmet Efendi, was a primary school teacher; his maternal grandfather is Sofu-zade (Sofi-zade) Feyzullah Efendi.

Mustafa Kemal's lineage from both his father and mother comes from the "Yörük" (Yürük) or "Turkmen" who were settled in Anatolia after the conquest of Rumelia for the Turkification of these lands. For this reason, in order to be able to research and understand Atatürk's lineage, the subject of the conquest and Turkification of Rumelia by the Turks should be put forward. Because, both in this conquest movement and in the Turkification of the conquered places, just as in Anatolia, the main element on which the state was based was Yörük, Yuruk, Turkmen, etc., for various reasons that will be pointed out below. There were Turkish elements called “nomadic-nomadic” known by different names.

prof. Dr. In the words of Tayyib Gökbilgin; “The Yuruks are from the Oghuzes, as Oruç Bey has clearly stated. The Turkish nomadic people groups, which are shown as tribe, taife, community, for example, the Turkmen tribe, Yuruk taife or the Bilfarz Oğulbeyli community with its special name, are not ethnically separate things, they are the same people that emerged from a single origin and then formed a new unity by dividing into sub-groups or by the merging of various groups. Turkish folk are parts of it.” one “This Turkish people, who is sometimes found as Turkmen and sometimes as yürük in our historical sources, and mentioned in this way in travel books, is from the XV. It is also fixed by the statement of Oruç Bey, one of the century-old historians who gave the oldest information about the founding period of the empire, as follows: 2

In general, one of the most serious studies on the Yörüks in terms of theory and analysis, Prof. Dr. According to Mehmet Eröz, the word "Yörük" is a word made from the verb "Yörümek", denoting the nomadic Oghuz tribes (Turkmen) who came and settled in Anatolia... The word is an adjective; the original is also (full). As an adjective, the word means advanced, civilized, knowledgeable, genus and pure... We have also observed that the word Yüğrük means capable, shrewd, brave... All the nomads said that this word is derived from the verb (to knead). In our opinion, it shows the partial movement (migration) and the general action (yörümek) throughout life... Yörük and Turkmen mean the same, they refer to the nomadic Oghuz Turks who came to Anatolia. All the documents show that these nomads came from Central Asia... (Yörük) and (Turkmen)' We can easily say that "in" are two words that belong to the same ethnic group. In archive documents, these two hands are used synonymously: Türkman-i Halep, Yörükan-ı Halep…ilh.”3


The Ottoman Empire acted differently in the settlement policy, depending on the changes in the political, economic and social situation during the establishment, expansion, stagnation and regression periods. While following a resettlement policy in the form of the settlement of "nomadic-nomadic" tribes in these new lands, especially in the first periods, with the acquisition of new lands (an outward-looking policy of resettlement); After the empire lost its dynamism and spread around, the idea of ​​"nomadic people" who emerged as an element of internal settlement and the people who left their places for various reasons, settled in empty and ruined fields and opened them up for agriculture. In addition to this, XVIII. Towards the end of the century, the issue of the resettlement of the people who fled the lost lands also occupied the state as a separate concern. State pressure on nomadic groups in order to protect the settled population also allowed the nomads to settle down on their own. In order to ensure the safety of the roads against the movements of greed, the “derbent” facilities were reconstructed and their surroundings were used as a settlement in the form of a town or village. XIX. From the 19th century onwards, while studies were being carried out for the settlement of family groups and tribes in the form of a "overlord", on the other hand, it was now possible to deal with the influx of immigrants, which started completely "inward". For this purpose, the "migrant commission" was established, and the state has carried out the resettlement policy more systematically since this century. The “derbent” facilities were reconstructed and their surroundings were used as a settlement in the form of a town or village. XIX. From the 19th century, while studies were being carried out for the settlement of family groups and tribes in the form of a "lord overlord", on the other hand, it was now possible to deal with the influx of immigrants, which started completely "inward". For this purpose, the "migrant commission" was established, and the state has carried out the resettlement policy more systematically since this century. The “derbent” facilities were reconstructed and their surroundings were used as a settlement in the form of a town or village. XIX. From the 19th century, while studies were being carried out for the settlement of family groups and tribes in the form of a "lord overlord", on the other hand, it was now possible to deal with the influx of immigrants, which started completely "inward". For this purpose, the "migrant commission" was established, and the state has carried out the resettlement policy more systematically since this century.4

The Ottoman Empire carried out this general "residence policy" with the following "residence methods": With the first settlement movement, which started under the leadership of the idealist "dervish" who belonged to many sects during the establishment period, by deporting the people to the newly acquired places, establishing foundations in various places and detached by establishing derbend facilities and placing people there. As it is known, the Turkish presence in Rumelia was also in question before the Ottoman Empire. In this context, we know that various Turkish elements such as Huns, Avars, Bulgars, Oghuzs, Cumans, Pechenegs and Seljuks settled in all of Rumelia, for example in Macedonia, between 378-1371 and that there are memories related to them. 5 The Ottoman Empire spread rapidly in Rumelia after the capture of Çimpe Castle on the Gallipoli Peninsula in 1356, and Rumelia became Turkish during approximately 550 years of Turkish domination that would last until 1912. The arrival of Muslim Anatolian Turks to Rumelia was initially called "Colonizer Turkish Dervishes" . started with the "dervishes" before the military conquest of the local people and especially IX. They formed the basis of the real conquest movement by winning the hearts of the Pecheneg and Cuman Turks who came and settled in the region in the 16th century. The first attempts started when many dervishes who were members of the sect, who acted after or together with the army and could be considered as a kind of "psychological warfare" or "intelligence" element, built zawiyas and lodges in important places where roads passed in deserted places. formed the core of the settlement. “Sarı Saltuk”, who inhabited Rumeli in this way, and “Geyikli Baba”, who played a role in the conquest of Bursa, can be given as examples. 7

During the establishment period, nomadic Turkish tribes were the most important elements used in the Turkification of the newly conquered places. Their warrior qualities, being in a discipline and organization made them even more important. As a matter of fact, during the reign of Rumelian conqueror Süleyman Pasha, the "immigrating" and "settlement" of the tribes to Rumelia began with the "exile" method. During the reign of Bayezid I, it is seen that the tribes were transferred to Rumelia to a greater extent with the aim of Turkification of Rumelia. During the transfer of Turkish communities to Rumelia, emigration was encouraged by giving them rich lands by the state, and granting privileges such as "yurtluk", "land" and "timar" to those who would pass with all their relatives. As much as this situation aims to encourage “conquest”,

The first settlement record belonging to the reign of Bayezid I belongs to the "Nomads" from the tribes who wintered in the Menemen Plain, who did not accept the "salt ban" in 1400-1401, and were exiled to Plovdiv. In the time of his son Çelebi Mehmet, Tatars, whose revolts were suppressed by Yörgüç Pasha, were settled in Dobruca. After the capture of Argos in Peloponnese in 1397, 30,000 people were transferred from here to Anatolia, and from Anatolia to Skopje and Thessaly regions, Turkmen and Tatar tribes were transferred. Tribal migration from Anatolia to Rumelia, II. It continued until the end of Bayezid's reign. 8


Parallel to the progress and expansion of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkan Peninsula, the number and importance of the nomadic groups increased, and later on, it became necessary to connect them to a military organization and to create a special order and law. Yörük groups settled in various regions passing gradually to Rumelia, XV. Starting from the middle of the century, they started to take certain roles in military and strategic missions, individuals who could accomplish these tasks were identified, and their censuses were made; their summons, obligations and other matters are bound by certain rules. Thus, in the XVI. In the middle of the century, a regular military class, which took place and duty in army services and state affairs, emerged.

XVII. In the 16th century, these nomadic organizations in Rumelia began to disintegrate, the number of nomadic posts decreased, and a significant part of them left their "nomadic life" and started a settled life. The duties assigned to them during the expedition were not fulfilled. This was better seen during the long Austrian wars that began with the Second Siege of Vienna. For these reasons, XVII. between the end of the century and the XVIII. At the beginning of the century, these groups, which were partially disciplined and disorganized, were rearranged. In 1691, the nomadic groups were rewritten under the name of “Evlad-ı Fatihan” and in the “right, left and middle arm” of Rumeli, with a “line Hümayun” of the Sultan. Thus, the organization more or less changed both its name and its military and economic shape and structure according to the needs of the time. 9

When the information given by the sources is evaluated, it is seen that the Turkish groups who settled in Rumelia are gathered under three important names: Konyars, Yörükler (Yürükler) and Tatars. All Yörüks, including the "Konyars", who are called by the name of the place they came from Anatolia (Konya-Karaman), although we will give detailed information about Atatürk's maternal lineage below, and although they are also a "Yörük" group, for various historical, cultural and geographical reasons. got names. The nomads who were settled in Rumeli and mentioned in the official records of the Ottoman Empire and whose names were "recorded" are as follows: "Naldöken Yoruks, Tanrıdağı (Karagöz) Yoruks, Thessaloniki Yoruks, Ofçabolu Nomads, Vize Nomads and Kocacik Yoruks".

According to the documents, it is seen that the nomads in Rumelia got names in three ways: firstly, according to the name of their chief or "chieftain", secondly, according to any different or distinguished characteristics, and finally, thirdly, according to the name of the place where they live most. Although the first form was common in naming or taking a name, the third shape spread as a result of gathering around a center and semi-sedentary life.

For example, “Koca Hamza Yoruks” are among those who are named in the first way. The “Kocacık Yoruks”, from which Atatürk's paternal lineage comes, are these Koca Hamza Nomads. “Naldöken Nomads” are among the groups named after the second form. Because they excelled in the art and business of shoveling. XV. It was also called “Yörükan-ı Nalbant Doğan” in the century. In the same way, there are also "Yaykan Yoruks" in the records. They were also called by the same name in Anatolia. "Thessaloniki", "Ofçabolu" and "Vize" Yoruks were mentioned with the names of the centers where they lived intensely, which is a geographical nomenclature. Among these Yörük groups, there are Konyars, Kocacıklar, etc. living in that region. There are also nomadic groups such as 10


Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's paternal lineage came from Aydın/Söke and settled in Manastır Province. Ali Rıza Efendi was born in Kocacık (probably in 1839) of the Debre-i Bala Sanjak of the Manastır Province. The family later settled in Thessaloniki. As his grandfather Ahmet and his grandfather's brother Hafız Mehmet's nickname “Kızıl” and the name of the town they settled in, “Kocacık” show; Mustafa Kemal's paternal lineage comes from the “Kızıl-Oğuz or “Kocacık Yoruks, Turkmens” who played an important role in the Turkification of Anatolia. Before revealing what is known about the ancestry of Atatürk's father, in order to show historical continuity, it is necessary to know the information based on documents about the Kızıl Oğuz and Kocacıklar and to base the family's adventure on this basis. Like this,11th


Hüseyin Şekercioğlu, who refers to the Red Oghuzes or the Red Oghuz Turkmens as “Kızılkocalılar” and treats them as the same “Yörük group” with the Kocacık Yoruks or Turkmens, is of the opinion that these “Oguzs are from the Kızıl Oghuz tribe”. They are the tribes of “Kızıl Bey”, son of Arslan Shah, one of the rulers of İldeniz, who lived in the regions of Tehran, Kazvin, Rest, Zencan and Tabriz in the south and southwest of the Caspian Sea around 1041, who lived in the region of the “Kızıl Özen” or “Kızıl Ören” River. For this reason, these Turkmens were called "Red Oghuz Turks". 12 We see them acting together with Arslan Yabgu, one of Seljuk's four sons, within the "Oguz Yabgu State", which was an independent and mighty state in the first half of the X century, and before the Great Seljuk State was established. Arslan Yabgu, who is also the ancestor of the founders of the Turkish Seljuk State. When he was arrested and imprisoned by the Ghaznavid Sultan Mahmud (1025), Yagmur, Buka, Gok-Tas and Kizil were at the head of the Oghuz cluster of 4000 tents, which left this region and moved to Khorasan and settled in Serahs, Ferave (today Kizil Arvat, Kizil Ribat) and Abiverd. There were gentlemen. Kızıl Bey later entered the service of Mesud of Ghazni during his reign. Under the rule of Humar-Taş Bey, some Turkmen groups later settled in Iraq. To distinguish them from the groups remaining in the Khorasan Balhan region, they were called "Iraqi Oghuzes". We see the “Kızıllı Oghuzs” together with the “Iraqi Oghuzes” after the Seljuks defeated the Ghaznavid army at the Battle of Nesa on 29 June 1035: After this victory, although various Oghuz tribes joined the Seljuks, together with the “Yagmurlu Oghuzs” and the “Balhan Turkmens” The “Kızıllı Oguz” did not participate; They entered the service of Alaü'd-devle, the ruler of Isfahan, for a while, and later left them and joined their cognates, the "Iraqi Oghuzs".

After a while, these Oghuzs joined the Oghuzs in Rey. Iraqi Oghuzs could raise 5000 horsemen, and in this period, there were gentlemen such as Kızıl, Gök-Taş, Buka, Gizoğlu, Mansur, Dana (?) and Anası-Son. Of these, Kızıl and Buka will first capture Rey and then Hemedan. Kızıl Bey, who we know married to the sister of the Seljuk Sultan Tuğrul Bey and who gave great support to the Seljuks in the establishment of the state, died approximately in 1040 or 1041 after the establishment of the state. He was buried near the city. 13 These Red Oghuz Turkmens, who were loyal to Tugrul Bey, took an active role in the raids on Anatolia, although they were headed by Mansur, Gök-Taş and Buka Beys. During the reigns of Sultan Alp Arslan and Sultan Melikşah, the Red Oghuzes, who were under the command of Alp Arslan's nephew Sadettin Bey, started raids towards the provinces of Kars, Erzurum, Erzincan and Sivas after the 1071 Battle of Manzikert and the Victory, and captured the Kelkit Valley between Sivas and Tokat. they spent. Ankara Governor “Kızıl Bey”, who held the administration of Ankara during the last times of the Turkish Seljuks and the Anatolian Principalities, was one of these Red Oghuz Turkmens.

The Red Oghuz Turkmens settled in the provinces of Tokat, Amasya, Konya, Karaman, Ankara, Aydın, Isparta, Balikesir, Bolu, Kastamonu and Sinop within the framework of the "settlement" policies of the Seljuk State; In 1410, they also established a principality called “Kızıl Ahmetliler” in the region known as “Kızıl Özenliler Yurdu” (around today's Reşadiye-Kızıl Ören Village) between Reşadiye and Mesudiye. Ahmet Bey, the son of Kızıl, and his brothers, who gave the principality its name, captured Amasya, Tokat, Çorum and Sivas, Ordu, Samsun, Giresun and Şebinkarahisar. They dominated the Kızılırmak and Yeşilırmak regions. In 1424, Sultan II. By the order of Murat, the Governor of Amasya Yörgüç Pasha invited Kızıl-Oğulu Ahmet Bey and other notables to Amasya Castle and eliminated them. The Red Oghuz Turkmens were also dispersed to various parts of Anatolia. A large part of the Red Oghuz Turkmens, They were settled in the provinces of Thessaloniki, Manastır and Yanya, which were conquered in Rumeli under the command of Evrenos-Son Ali Bey during the reign of Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror. Cemalettin Kızıl Ahmet Pasha, the last Bey of Isfendiyaroğulları and the Governor of Kastamonu of the Ottomans, Mirza Mehmet Bey, who was the Sanjak Bey of Bayburt in the 1515s, and his father Kızıl Ahmet Bey, who was the Sanjak Bey of Bolu, and III. Kızıl Ahmetli Şemsi Pasha, who was Rumelian governor in the time of Murat, was one of the Red Oghuz Turkmens.14

The late Prof. Dr. Faruk Sumer's XVI. According to his researches based on the 19th Century Tahrir Notebooks, XVI. In the 16th century, the “tribes” affiliated to the Red Oghuz Turkmens were seen in Anatolia: The “Kızıllu” tribe affiliated to the “Dulkadırlı Eli” spread over the area from Maraş to Ankara, Kayseri, Kırşehir. The "Koca-Hacılu" tribe affiliated to the "Diyarbekir Turkmens", a branch of Boz-Ulus. “Kızıl-Kocalu” tribe, one of the “Dul-kadırlı” tribes of Boz-Ulus. “Kızıl-Kocalu” in Kara-Taş, “Kızıl-Kocalu” in Ak-Dağ, “Kızıl-Kocalu” tribes in Sorgun of “Boz-Ok Eli” (today's Yozgat region). “Kızılca-Yalınc” and “Kızılca-Keçilu” tribes in “Hinge Hand” (today's Muğla region). 15

As it is known, "place names" are of great importance in terms of cultural history. As seen in the Turkification of Anatolia and Rumelia, Turks give place names depending on various traditions. Sometimes, as a part of national culture, place names in Central Asia are given to similar places in Anatolia and Rumelia. Sometimes, a tribe or tribe gave the name of its tribe or tribe to the place where it settled. Sometimes, he is named after the lord of the neck or of the elder of the neck. The land shape, an event during the settlement, an ancient totem and the name of an animal whose faint traces continue in the memories were also given or taken according to the name. 16All the place names that start with the word “Red” in Anatolia yesterday and today carry the memories of these Red Oghuz Turkmens within the framework of this tradition. Some examples can be given as follows: Kızıl-ırmak, Kızılca-hamam, Kızılca-viran (today Kızılca-ören) (XVI. Century, Bayburt Sanjak Centre), Kızılca-kent (XVI. Century, Bayburt, Kelkit), Kızılca (XVI. Century, Bayburt, Tercan-ı Süfla) 17 , Kızıl-köy (Afyon, Bursa), Kızıl-çakçak, Kızıl-ziyaret (Ağrı), Kızıl-ox (Kars), Kızıl-ırmak, Kızıl-mountains (Suşehri, Refahiye, Imranli), Kizil-kuyu, Kizil-lar, Kizil-yaka, Kizil-ören (villages of Karaman). 18


As can be seen in the names of tribes and place in Anatolia, names such as “Kızıl-Kocalu”, “Kızıl-Kocalı”, “Kocacıklılar” “Kocacıklar”, “Kocacık Turkmen” and “Kocacık Yoruks” are given to the Kızıl Oguz Turkmens. "Kocacik Yoruks" settled in Rumeli, XVI. and XVII. It is one of the six nomadic groups for which separate "catalogs" were drawn up for them in the 16th century. There are four notebooks in our archives, which are directly related to the Kocacik Yoruks in Rumeli and show more than a century (1543-1666). Two of them are complete and independent, reserved for the times when the organization was still strong (1543 and 1584). The other two, which report the situation of 1642 and 1666, are missing and are in other books. These belong to the period when the organization began to deteriorate.

The Kocaciks in Rumeli were formerly known as "Koca Hamza Yoruks" because of the presence of a brain named "Big Hamza", about which we have no historical information; We know that they continued to be known as Kocacıklar in the places where they were the majority. The significant increase in the population of Kocacik Yoruks, which was seen as 132 January in 1543 and 179 January in 1584, and which fell to 18 January after sixty years, was between 1572 and 1575. According to the records, the places where they settled and were written with their own names are: Ak-kerman, Bender, Kili”. The eastern sides of Eastern Thrace, Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia, partially including the Naldöken and Tanrıdağı Yoruks, The Kocaciks living in all Dobruca and Bender and Akkerman regions (Kırkkilise, Çirmen, Vize, Silistra, Bender, Akkerman Sanjaks along with the Old Pasha Livasi) constituted a very important group, albeit a small number of them. In this region, Mustafa (Bz)bali Bey in 1543, Mahmut in 1572, Mehmet in 1584 and Muharrem Bey in 16O3 are seen as “subaşı” in this region.

The places where the Kocacik Nomads settled, the Black Sea coast, with the exception of Plovdiv, finally stretched across an area of ​​250 kilometers, from today's Turkey to Edirne and Kırklareli Provinces, from Bulgaria and to the eastern sides of Eastern Rumelia and from Silistra. It consists of Dobruca and finally Kili, Bender and Akkerman triangles in the north. XVI. The region where they showed the highest density in the second half of the century is between Yanbolu, Varna and Shumen. Next comes Hırsova, which is more than the sum of Naldöken, Tanrıdağı, Thessaloniki Yoruks written in this region, and it is the place where they are most found in this group after Yanbolu. XVI. In the second half of the century, there were more than 1600 residential areas inhabited by the Kocacik Yoruks, most of which we cannot identify today.20

The Kocacik nomads were also present in a significant amount outside of these places where they were written in their own notebooks, although not as densely as in these places. Until the establishment of the "Evlad-ı Fatihan Organization", there were also Kızıl Oğuz or Kocacık Yoruks among the nomadic groups that were written and recorded as "Thessaloniki Yoruks" and "Ofçabolu Yoruks".

The "Thessaloniki Nomads", who have been densely settled in the whole Macedonia and Thessaly region since the conquest, and in relatively small amounts in Bulgaria and Dobruca, are located in Thessaly; they mostly lived in Yenişehir, Florina, Serfice, Avrethisarı, Strumica, and in Dobriça, in Silistra. The Nomads of Thessaloniki, which had a total of 500 quarries, were located in the following regions, with their "hearth" numbers, according to the 1543 Tahrir Register: Manastır (7), Prilep (13), Florina (36), Serfice (33), Fener (23), Badracık ( 5), Çatalca (60), Yenişehir (117), Kelemeriye (35), Pınardağı (8), Yenice-Vardar (2), Avrethisarı (47), Usturumca(28), De-mirhisar (8), Plovdiv (10) ), Kızıl-ağaç (2), Yenizağra (1), Eskizağra (6), Ak-çekazanlık (1), Hasköy (1), Lofça (3), Yanbolu (1), Tatarpazarı (7), Pravadi (3) , Silistra (26), Tekfurgölü (2), Varna (4), Hırsova (2), Shumen (2),21

“Ofçabolu” is the name of a region between Skopje and Shtip in the borders of today's Republic of Macedonia, which is less faulty and suitable for a nomadic lifestyle. It is also called "Mustafa Plain". Its central town is Shtip. Both here and around Prilep and Tikveş, the XIX. Yörüks, whose existence was determined even in the XVI century. and XVII. They constituted the "Ofçabolu nomads" in the centuries. They are seen especially in four places in the former Kosava and Monastery Provinces of the empire, and sporadically in some places in Bulgaria and Dobrica. Ofçabolu nomads, which were determined as 97 January in 1566 and 88 January in 1608, according to the tahrir book dated 1566, Skopje (18), Ostruva (14), Shtip (31), Prilepe (35), Tatarpazarı (1), Plovdiv ( 1), Yanbolu (2), Silistra (1), Tırnova (2) and Ihtiman (2).22

As mentioned above, these Yörük elements who Turkified Rumelia were reorganized under the name of "Evlad-ı Fatihan" after 1691. According to the “tahrir” made by Hasan Pasha, the names of the townships and villages named after the “Kızıl Oğuz” or “Kocacık” Yörüks, which can be determined in the Evlad-ı Fatihan Notebook dated 1691 (1102), and the number of “yürük infantrymen” these villages were obliged to issue. (names in parentheses indicate the districts to which the villages are affiliated): Yenice-i Kızılağaç 14, Kızılcıklı 2 (Çırpan), Kızılca-Ali 8 (Tatarpazarı), Koca-beğli 1 (Philibe), Kızılca-butcher 7 (Uzunca-ova Hasköy) ), Kızıllu 5 (Kavala), Kızıl-doğan 9 (Toyran), Kızıllı 14 (Nahiye-i Bazargah), Koca-Ahmedli 66 (Friday-Market, Sarı-Göl), Kocalı Mahallesi (Radovişte 50), Koca-Ömer ma 'a Rough-wood 11, Red-wood 1 (Gamilcine),23


The most reliable information we have about Atatürk's ancestry is primarily what he, his mother, and his brother Makbule Hanım told. Secondly, it is the information given by some childhood friends, such as Hacı Mehmet Somer, who knew him and his family. Family members, including Mustafa Kemal, have a strong awareness of being a "Yörük, Turkmen": Ms. Makbule, EB Şapolyo asked "Where is your father from?" He gave the following answer to the question: “My father, Ali Rıza Efendi, is native to Thessaloniki. They are from the Yörük dynasty. My mother always took pride in being a nomad. One day he asked Atatürk, 'What is a nomad?' I asked. My brother also called me 'The Marching Turks'." Again, according to Şapolyo's recount from Ruşen Eşref Ünaydın, “Atatürk, they often said that my ancestors were Yörük Turkmens who came to Rumelia from Anatolia.” 24

One of those who gave important information about Atatürk's paternal lineage is M. Kemal's neighborhood and school friend in Thessaloniki, one of the former Members of Parliament, Hacı Mehmet Somer. According to Somer; “The following is what I know about Atatürk's ancestors: Atatürk's ancestors came from Anatolia and settled in Kocacık sub-district of Debre-i Bala Sanjak of Manastır Province. I heard this from the elders of Thessaloniki. All of the people of Kocacik speak pure Turkish. They are tall men. They are all nomads. They live on livestock, they have herds. Some are lumberjacks. Their clothes are similar to Anatolian Turks. Their way of life, even their dialect, is the same.” 25 Former Aydın Deputy Tahsi San Bey, who knew Atatürk's father and grandfather, “Kızıl Hafız Ahmet, and former General Inspector and Deputy Tahsin Uzer 26 by Kılıç Ali  and Tahsin San Bey by EB Şapolyo 27 conveyed information from Atatürk. It shows that the paternal lineage of ' is from "Yörüks who passed from Anatolia to Rumelia". Atatürk's paternal lineage came from Aydın/Söke and settled in Kocacık, a district of Debre-i Bala Sanjak of Manastır Province. The family later immigrated to Thessaloniki. As his grandfather Ahmet and his grandfather's brother Hafız Mehmet's nickname “Kızıl” and the name of the town they settled in, “Kocacık” show; Mustafa Kemal's paternal lineage comes from the “Kızıl-Oğuz” or “Kocacık Yoruks, Turkmens” who played an important role in the Turkification of Anatolia.

Today, approximately 200,000 Turks live in the Republic of Macedonia, which has a population of approximately 2,100,000, some of whom are still nomadic Yoruks. These are the places where the Turks, who live scattered all over Macedonia, are most concentrated. It is the Western Macedonia Region with cities such as Gostivar and Skopje. other than these cities. Tetovo, Ohrid, Struga and Debre, Jupa; In eastern Macedonia, it is the Monastery. Prilep, Shtip, Strumica and Kanatlar are important Turkish settlements. 28

J. Ivanof, Professor of Sofia University, in his work published in Paris in 1920, gives the following information about the settlement of Turks in Macedonia: Turks, XIV. They started to settle in Macedonia starting from the century and following the Çirmen victory. Cities Skopje, Prilep, Köstendil, Drama became cities where Turks lived for a while. Turkish towns are quickly formed around the strategic points conquered by the Turkish army. These are the Turks who migrated from Anatolia. Brand new cities are formed, made up of immigrant Turks: Yenice, Vardar. Over time, the Turkish population in the cities presents a mixed picture. Following the conquest, the Christian natives converted to Islam. They gather around the clean Turkish community who migrated immediately after the conquest. Apart from the cities, Turkish communities also come into existence around the villages. These are the large groups that migrated from Anatolia. The reason why they named them Yörük and Konyar is that these immigrants came from Anatolia from Konya. In general, the Yoruks and Konyars do not mix with the locals (Christians who accepted Islam) who dress and speak like Turks. These Turkish immigrant communities are in three large groups: 1. Aegean Sea Coastal Region: It descends from the Rhodopes to the sea. These areas, including the Thessaloniki region, are completely Turkish. 2. Sarıgöl Region: There are rich Turkish towns such as Sarıgöl (Kayalar), Cuma. The number of villages in this region is 130. 3. Vardar Region: There are 240 Turkish towns and villages. It is generally on the east bank of the Vardar river. Apart from these three major migration groups, smaller migratory groups also settled dispersedly: - Downstream of the Vardar River, around Mount Maya,29

The center of “Debre-i Bala”, which was one of the four sanjaks of the Manastır Province during the Ottoman Empire period, when Atatürk's grandfathers came from Anatolia and settled, is the city of Debre in Western Macedonia today. The town of “Kocacık”, where his father Ali Rıza Efendi was born, is now a village in the Jupa Region with the same name. There is also a school in the village called Necati Zekeriya Merkez Primary School, where Turkish children from Jupa Region receive Turkish education. In 1993, journalist Altan Araslı went to Kocacık Village and found Atatürk's grandfather's house there. In the news titled "We Found Atatürk's Grandfather's House, Our Ancestor Yörük Turkmen", the conversations with the people of Kocacık also show that the information conveyed about Atatürk's paternal lineage is true and they are still vividly remembered by the old people in the village. is explained. In addition, the villagers of Kocacik living today also have the awareness of being a Yörük, Turkmen and Oghuz.

Numan Kartal from Kocacık, whom Araslı met in Skopje, tells: “Ali Rıza Efendi was born in Kocacık, a district of the Debreibala Sanjak of the Manastır Province. The population of Kocacik is completely Turkish. All of them are Yörük Turkmens. They came from Anatolia. We are from the Turkmen tribe of the Muslim Oghuzes. Atatürk's grandfather is from the Shkodian family, and his grandmother is from the Golas family. Shkodians are the name of the raider Turks who came and settled in Kocacik from Shkodya. Golas means 'border veterans'. Her grandfather is from the Taşlı District of Kocacık, and her grandmother is from the Upper District. Ayşe Hanım came to Taşlı Mahallesi as a bride. Red Hafız Mehmet Efendi worked as a primary school teacher in Çınarlı Mahallesi. There is a slope on the upper side of the Taşlı District of Kocacık. A small stream flows in front of it. For this reason, it is also called Dere Mahallesi. There was Ata's Grandfather's house. When they migrated from Kocacik permanently, they sold their house to Etem Maliks. Malik's son Hayrettin lived in Izmit.”

Murat Ağa, one of the people of Kocacık, also living in Skopje, gave the following information to Altan Araslı: “Atatürk's grandfather's name is Kırmızı Hafız Ahmet Efendi. That's their nickname. But his brother Mehmet Efendi is the real hafiz. His grandmother's name is Ayşe Hanım. Later, Ahmet Efendi began to be called 'a fugitive'. Firari means 'expatriate', 'going abroad' in Rumelia. However, it is also related to an event that took place in Thessaloniki. Kocacik's land is not fertile. Its possibilities are also limited. For this reason, Ahmet Efendi went to Thessaloniki to work with Feyzullah Pehlivan from Yukarı Mahalle and Fazlı Ağa from Taşlı Mahallesi. One day in May 1876, they witnessed an incident on the road…” Murat Ağa then ends his speech by describing an event whose accuracy is questionable. The date Murat Ağa gives here is also wrong. Because, Since we know that Atatürk's father was born in Thessaloniki in approximately 1839, it must have been quite some time since the family had moved to Thessaloniki on the dates already mentioned. As a matter of fact, according to the information given by Araslı, Ahmet Efendi moved from Kocacik thirty years before the 93 War (1877-1878 Ottoman-Russian War); Villagers say that the first to leave the village was Mustafa Kemal's Great Uncle, Kırmızı Hafız Mehmet Efendi. Another Kocacıklı that Araslı met in Skopje is Behlül and Hatice's Daughter Maksude Yıldız from the Dolakar Family, from Kocacık's Yukarı Neighborhood. Maksude Yıldız explains: “The march of the Operation Army to Istanbul created great excitement all over the Balkans... The activities of the Operation Army were the most current issue. Its members also became famous. We learned that Şevket Pasha's aide is from Kocacık. When you say who is what, what is it,

Journalist Altan Araslı, after getting this information from Bu Kocacıklılar in Skopje, together with Remzi Canova from the Birlik Newspaper (the newspaper published by the Turks in Skopje) climbed the famous Kaz Mountains of Rumeli, the Maya Mountains, and climbed a steep mountain. They reach the village of Kocacik after a four-hour drive. Here he shows them the house of İsmail Yahya Atatürk's grandfather, one of the villagers. While they were talking about the past, an old grandmother comes in and confirms İsmail Yahya's words by saying, “My son is true, it was their home”. 30

According to the available information, Atatürk's paternal lineage migrated from Aydın-Söke and came to Macedonia. The family settled in Kocacık Village (Village) of Debre-i Bala Sanjak of Manastır Province, immigrating to Thessaloniki in the 1830s. Atatürk's father, Ali Rıza Efendi, was born here in about 1839. His father is Kızıl Hafiz Ahmet Efendi. Kızıl Hafız Ahmet Efendi has a male named Kızıl Hafız Mehmet Emin Efendi and a female sister named Nimeti Hanım. Atatürk's paternal lineage continued by his great uncle Kızıl Hafız Mehmet Emin Efendi and has survived to the present day. The family, which continues from his son Salih Efendi and his second wife Müberra Hanım, has reached the seventh generation with grandchildren. We know from the documents that Atatürk addressed Müberra Hanım as “Aunt”. Necati Erbatur, one of their five children, Engaged in Dolmabahçe Palace on September 28, 1927; The wedding of Nesrin Hanım, daughter of Vüsat Erbatur, and Feridun Söğütligil, the other children, was held at the Park Hotel on October 2, 1937, and Atatürk attended this wedding ceremony.31


Atatürk's father, Ali Rıza Efendi, was born in Thessaloniki in 1839.  Ali Rıza Efendi, who we know that he studied at Abdi Hafız School in Thessaloniki 32 and worked as a "second clerk" in the Foundations Administration, later entered the Rüsumat Administration and served as the "Customs Officer".

Ali Rıza Efendi's duty as customs guard was in Papazköprü (Çayağzı) of Katerin District, located on the skirts of Mount Olympus, near Thessaloniki. After serving for a few years in this region, which supplies the wood and charcoal needs of Thessaloniki and its surroundings and even Istanbul, he also leaves Rüsumat. The deterioration of public order in this region and the continuous raids of Greek gangs played a role in his separation. Ali Rıza Efendi, who was newly married in those years, wanted to save his wife from this messy environment. It is known that his duty here continued from the 1870s until the years 1880-1881. According to these dates, Ali Rıza Efendi was in this position in Çayağzı at the time of his marriage and when Mustafa Kemal was born. As a matter of fact, Zübeyde Hanım was talking about the days when Mustafa Kemal was born,33

As a result of research on a photograph seized in 1935 and identified as belonging to Ali Rıza Efendi, we learn that he served in the "Asakir-i Milliye Battalion" in Thessaloniki between 1876-1877 with the rank of "First Mülazım" and First Lieutenant. The “Thessaloniki Asakir-i Milliye Battalion”, of which he was a member, is one of the “volunteer battalions” established with the initiatives of Midhat Pasha, who was the President of the Council at the beginning of the 1876 Ottoman-Serbian War. Namık Kemal and Ziya Pasha were among those who supported the idea of ​​forming such a force to assist the army with the participation of volunteers from the public. After the first movement started in Istanbul, volunteers from the civil servants and the people in Thessaloniki requested weapons from the government in order to establish a battalion under the name of “Nation Soldier” and prepare for war. It was thought that bringing this battalion, which had a successful education, to Istanbul would encourage the people, and the battalion, including Ali Rıza Efendi, arrived in the capital on 24 December 1876 with the Orhaniye Battleship. The battalion, which was welcomed with a great ceremony, made an official parade in front of Midhat Pasha and was hosted in the Süleymaniye Barracks. Ali Rıza Efendi is a First Lieutenant in the second division of this battalion. Ali Rıza Efendi had the “Asakir-i Milliye” conduct military exercises in the Islahhane District of Thessaloniki, in Emir Bostan and in the courtyard of the Numan Pasha Mosque. This battalion later II. It was abolished by Abdulhamid before the result of the Ottoman-Russian War of 1877-1878.” He made an official parade in front of Midhat Pasha and was hosted in the Süleymaniye Barracks. Ali Rıza Efendi is a First Lieutenant in the second division of this battalion. Ali Rıza Efendi had the “Asakir-i Milliye” conduct military exercises in the Islahhane District of Thessaloniki, in Emir Bostan and in the courtyard of the Numan Pasha Mosque. This battalion later II. It was abolished by Abdulhamid before the result of the Ottoman-Russian War of 1877-1878.” He made an official parade in front of Midhat Pasha and was hosted in the Süleymaniye Barracks. Ali Rıza Efendi is a First Lieutenant in the second division of this battalion. Ali Rıza Efendi had the “Asakir-i Milliye” conduct military exercises in the Islahhane District of Thessaloniki, in Emir Bostan and in the courtyard of the Numan Pasha Mosque. This battalion later II. It was abolished by Abdulhamid before the result of the Ottoman-Russian War of 1877-1878.”34

Ali Rıza Efendi resigned from his duty in the Rusumat Administration after 1881. He is thrown into the lumber trade. According to Kütahya Deputy Hacı Mehmet Somer, who knew Atatürk's childhood friend and his father, Ali Rıza Efendi's entry into the timber trade was influenced by the merchants he met while he was in Çayağzı and saw that they were making good money. Ali Rıza Efendi, who started his business life by putting some money in his hand and establishing a partnership with Cafer Efendi, was making good money at first. But later on, his business broke down. The reason for this was the “Greek bandits” who demanded tribute. Hacı Mehmet Somer describes this situation as follows:

“Ali Rıza Efendi gave all he had to the timber trade. This attempt, which had great success at first, provoked the greed of the thugs, Katerin's eternal scourge. They threatened Ali Rıza Efendi to send money. If he doesn't send money. They said they would burn their timber. For this reason, it was not possible to go to the forest zone and control their work. He was afraid to transport the processed timber to the beach. Because these timbers were hostage for the bandits. Finally, when the money they hoped for did not come from Ali Rıza Efendi, they burned all the timbers. They also threatened the workers. The workers also dispersed. Thereupon, Ali Rıza Efendi tried to save what was possible, as if he was stealing goods from the fire. “The bandits here were all political gangs. With the abandonment of Thessaly to Greece in 1298 (1883), The Greek border was based on the Katherine District and the Olympos Mountains. It was all about that. After the Russian war of 1877, Macedonia was full of gangs, and the Turks were no longer comfortable. Because of these political gangs, Ali Rıza Efendi's trade was also disrupted.”35

After mentioning that her father's business deteriorated as a result of the activities of the Greek brigands, Makbule Hanım tells that she started the salt trade and that the salt in her store was melted in bulk, she was wasted in this job, she wanted to become a civil servant again, and she could not succeed in this either. 36

After leaving the civil service, Ali Rıza Efendi, whose every commercial activity ended in failure in this way, was very affected by these events and became embittered and seriously ill in a great moral depression. Zübeyde Hanım describes these developments in her memoirs as follows: “She was very upset that the deceased's job went bad in his last days. He released himself. Afterwards, the dervish became dissolute and melted away. My husband's illness grew, he would no longer live.” 37  According to the statements of Ms. Makbule, Ali Rıza Efendi “was very upset that his affairs were going badly... Finally, he fell ill with tuberculosis. He passed away after suffering from illness for three years…” 38 Different dates are given regarding the date of death of Ali Rıza Efendi. In his memories of Mustafa Kemal, without giving a date, “...I was enrolled in Şemsi Efendi School. A short time later, my father passed away” 39  . His sister Makbule Hanım, on the other hand, tells in her memoirs that when she was born (1885), her father's illness started, she could not go to work, and when she was her first year of age, her illness became very severe and her father passed away when her youngest sister Naciye (born: 1889) was forty days old. 40

In this case, Ali Rıza Efendi's death must have coincided with the first months of 1889 or 1890. Mustafa Kemal is also in his ninth year at that time. And he is in the third year of Şemsi Efendi School. Afet Inan said, "Mustafa was orphaned from his father at primary school age"; Ali Fuat Cebesoy also writes that “Mustafa Kemal was 9-10 years old when his father died”. 41

Despite the information obtained from all these memories, Faik Reşit Unat states that Ali Rıza Efendi died on 28 November 1893. Without publishing the document, FR Unat cites the documents in the file regarding the fact that Makbule Hanım was given a pension from her father after she broke up with her first husband. 42  When looking back from the date of 13 March 1896, when Mustafa Kemal entered the Manastır Military High School, considering the four and a half months he spent in the Military Junior High School, the Mulkiye High School and the farm; It is highly probable that the date determined by Faik Reşit Unat is correct. Therefore, if we accept Ali Rıza Efendi's death as 1893, he is 54 years old and Mustafa Kemal is 12 years old when his father passed away.



The maternal lineage of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk is also based on the Yoruks or Turkmens who came from Anatolia and settled in Rumelia. His maternal grandfather is Sofu-zade (Sofi-zade) Feyzullah Ağa, who migrated from the "Rocks", also called "Sarıgöl", of the Vodina Sanjak, and settled in "Lankaza" near Thessaloniki. As the "Sarıgöl" region where they settled, the nickname "Sofular" and the memories in the family show, Atatürk's maternal lineage came from Konya Karaman to Rumeli, and therefore "Konyars", different from the other Yörük groups in Rumeli, they are among the Yörüks. .

As we briefly mentioned above, in the second part of the Middle Ages, there were many Turkish elements that came to the Balkan Peninsula in various waves and were settled here by the Byzantine Empire. Beginning from the 10th century, Pechenegs, Oghuzes and Cumans came by the northern route, passing through the Danube, at various dates and were settled in various places. IX. Even in the 16th century, some Turkish groups mentioned as “Vardarlı Turks” in Byzantine sources settled around Thessaloniki. Lejean (1861) sees the Turks, whom the Byzantine source “Anna Commene” mentions as having settled around Ohrid, related to the Oghuzs who settled in Macedonia towards 1065. These settlements of the Oghuzs are attributed to "Attaliates" by Prof. Dr. Akdes is also confirmed by Nimet Kurat.

The "Konyars" are shown as the first Turkish group to cross from Anatolia to the peninsula and settle in Konya, the center of the Seljuks of Turkey. XIX. century or XX. Western travelers and scientists who visited Rumelia at the beginning of the century and gathered their memories by meeting the Turks there personally or wrote works about the Turkish presence there, G. Lejean (1861), Gervinus (1851), Jirecek (1891), GF Hertzberg (1878), A. Turna (1888), Cijic (1908), Frachet d'Esperj (1911), Ivanof (1918), E. Max, Hoppe, (1934)A. Boue (1899), Oberhummer (1917), and finally, in a separate and rather detailed study of the "Konyars", Hr. P. Traeger (1905) 43  They give important information about “Konyars”.

Although all these authors who provide information on this subject sometimes confuse Konyars with "Yörükler" and "Evlad-ı Fatihan"; They show that they came from Konya and settled or settled in Rumelia. However, they give different information about the date of their arrival and the way they came. Comparing all these views critically, Prof. Dr. Tayyib Gökbilgin makes the following assessment regarding the arrival and settlement of the Konyars in Rumeli: “The last and relatively acceptable possibility is that they were built during the Second World War. Murad, but especially in the times of Fatih, during and after the struggles with the Karaman sons, Turkish tribes from Karaman, Konya and Ankara were settled in these regions. He had the ethnically foreign people of that area give this copy of the tesmiye due to their origin, and this name lived among its neighbors,44

The place where the Konyars were most concentrated was Kozan in Thessaly and the "Rocks" also called "Sarıgöl" in the north of it and the northeast of Thessaloniki. Later they spread further north. It is stated by all travelers that they are less in number than other Yörük groups, they live a semi-nomadic life, their exchange (shopping) centers are mostly in Yanya, and their carpets are famous in the whole region due to their special shape (“Konyaren Figüren”). In addition, it was determined by them that the Konyars lived in a more democratic way and were cheerful and active people. 45

Burhan Göksel, who made a study on Atatürk's ancestry and published some documents in the hands of the descendants of his uncle Kızıl Hafız Mehmet Emin Efendi, stated that the Konyars migrated to Rumelia after the Karamanoğulları were abolished in 1466 during the reign of Fatih Sultan Mehmet from Konya-Karaman. indicates that they were inhabited. 46

The Konyars, who did not have a separate number (tahrir) book for themselves in the organization of the Ottoman Empire regarding the Yoruks, became the nomads in the regions they settled, especially in the "Kocacık" and "Thessaloniki Yoruks", and later on "Vodina" and "Sarıgöller Region" Yoruks. They were recorded as "Evlad-ı Fatihan" in it. According to the “Evlad-ı Fatihan Piyadeleri Notebook” 47 , which includes the census made by Hasan Pasha in 1691 (1102), the number of the "Yörük Infantry" they are obliged to give to the villages, neighborhoods and the state in the "Sarıgöl" (Kayalar)ler Region is as follows:

“Eğri-Bucak District”: Turhanlı 49. Sofular 21. Evrenos 6. Archers 6. Eyrili 20. İshaklı 24. Çobanlı 24. İdil-obası 19. Şahinli 55. Leşli 34. Öküz-obasi 24. Emirhanlı 38. Gün-born 2. Rahmanlı 8. Evhad-i Kebir 58. Aydın-obası, Cinciler 66. Işıklu 29. Sinekli 34. Çakır-ı sagir 4. Sarı-Musalu 8. Çakırlı-i Kebir 13. Karamanlı 12. Karacalar 73. Burak 10. Tekye -i Hacı-Hasanlı 21. Topçular 18. Mountain lights 7.

“Cuma-Bazarı Township”: Haydarlı 60. Koca Ahmedli 66. Tarakçılı 6. Durasilar 6. Timurhanlu 3. Bar-çukuru 1. Kulalu 1. Erdoğmuşlu 5. Karaağaç 2. Dull-kayalar 1. Şahinler 3. Dedeler 3.

“Çarşanba Township”: Milli 77. Davudlu 18. Hacı-İsalar 18. Kulkallı 12. Hacılar 12. Yeniceler 14. Hacı-Ömerli 16. Karaçalı 6. Doğancalı 6. Tekye-i kebir and sagir 42. Keçili 18. Saltıklı 19. Oak 6. 48

According to the 1691 census of the "Lankaza Township" of Thessaloniki, where the family later settled, the number of their communities, villages and neighborhoods and the "Yörük Infantry" is as follows: 10. Haci-Bayramli 4. Pir-dede 1. Millers 6. Slave 7. Şuayblı 109. Umurlu ma'a Sarıçalı 45. Değirmencili ma'a Eyrilceli (Ayrıldıncalı) 18. Çokallı 9. Lotice 7. Ottoman 49. Yaylacık 16. Ayvalı-dere ma'a Şah-Veli and Saltıklı. Çınarlı 78. Bulcalı 13. Koçmar 4. Keruz 5. Lankaza 3. Sarıyar 1. Yaglica 1. Evrencik 1, 49

Again, according to this book, place names showing the memories of the Konya-Karaman region, and names of places and tribes such as "Sofular" and "Sarı-göllü", which indicate the lineage of the family, can be determined in Ereğli Township 50. Ereğli 1 (Kırk-Kilise). Ereğli 9, Kara-pınar 1, Sarıgöllü 4 (Avrethisarı). Sofular 19 (Nahiye-i Bazargah). Sofulu 9 (Nahiye, Kelemeriye). Sofular 21, Karamanlı 12 (Eğri-Bucak-Sarı-Göl). Sofulu 9 (Tikveş). Yellow-Lake 50 (Radovishte). Sofular 14 (Gamilcine). Karamanli 11 (Caglaik). Sofular 28 (New-Sunday). Sarı-göllü I, Sofular 2 (Babadag). San-gollu 1 (Ruschuk). Sofu Yurdu 1 (Tuzluk-Saltluk). 50


Mustafa Kemal's maternal grandfather is Sofuzade Feyzullah Efendi. He owned a farm in Langaza, an hour's drive from Thessaloniki. This is the farm that Atatürk and Makbule Hanım talked about in their childhood memories. His mother, Zübeyde Hanım, was the only daughter of Feyzullah Efendi from his third wife, Ayşe Hanım. Makbule Hanım (1885-1956), who was the longest-lived among Atatürk's five siblings, gives the following information about her maternal lineage by saying, “I have often asked my mother for the following: “Our main lineage is Yörük. We came here from Konya-Karaman circles. My father Feyzullah Efendi's great uncle went to Konya, entered the Mevlevi lodge and stayed there. He will have kept the nomad...' 51

Aydın Deputy Tahsin San, who also knew Atatürk's father Ali Rıza Efendi and his father Kızıl Hafız Ahmet Bey and died at the age of ninety, gave the following information about Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's mother Zübeyde Hanım's father: His wife, Zübeyde Hanım, is the daughter of Feyzullah Ağa from the Sofu-zade family. They were born in Thessaloniki. This family came to Thessaloniki from Sarıgöl 130 years ago. This township family, which consists of sixteen villages in the Sarıgöl Subdistrict to the west of Vodina District, is one of the Turkmen people who were sent and settled by the Ottoman Government from the people of Konya after the conquest of Macedonia and Thessaly. Until recently, they hadn't changed their lifestyles and clothes for five centuries." 52

On this subject, Lord Kinross provides the following information without citing: “Ms. Zübeyde was as blond as the Slavs beyond the Bulgarian border; He had a fair white complexion, deep but clear, light blue eyes. His family came from a region of lakes west of Thessaloniki towards Albania, where the harsh and bare mountains were submerged in wide, frozen waters. This was where the villagers from the heart of Anatolia settled after the Turks took Macedonia and Thessaly. That's why Zübeyde Hanım liked to think that in her veins she carried the blood of blond Yörüks, the descendants of the first nomadic Turkish tribes and still living their free lives in the Taurus Mountains.” 53

According to the available information, the family came from Karaman in 1466 and settled in Sarıgöl, a district of Vodina Sanjak; Then she immigrated to Lankaza (Langaza) near Thessaloniki, and Zübeyde Hanım was born here in 1857. Atatürk's mother Zübeyde Hanım's father Sofu-zade Feyzullah Efendi was married three times. Leaving aside the other two wives whose names we do not know, Hasan Ağa and Hüseyin Ağa were born together with Zübeyde Hanım from Feyzullah Efendi's third wife Ayşe (Aise) Hanım.


Atatürk's mother, Zübeyde Hanım, was born in Lankaza in 1857 and spent her childhood and early youth here with her family.

Zübeyde Hanım had a strong body structure as well as a strong will. She wasn't educated enough, but she had learned to read and write. She was called "Zübeyde Molla", just as her mother was called "Mullah Hanım". It was a nickname for his "wise" personality. She was a conservative, traditional woman. Zübeyde Hanım, who was 13-14 years old when they married Ali Rıza Efendi in 1870, as will be explained below, after her husband died, she returned to the family farm in Lankaza for a while with her children, and later made her second marriage with Ragıp Bey, who was her suitor. She was 36 years old during these years.

We know that Zübeyde Hanım went to Istanbul for three or five days to see Mustafa Kemal, who graduated from the Military Academy in 1905 and became a Staff Captain and was imprisoned for a short time, and sent off her son from Sirkeci, who will go to Damascus from there. Later on, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who made an emotional speech at his mother's grave on January 27, 1923, will tell about this event. Zübeyde Hanım, who resided in Thessaloniki until the end of the Balkan Wars, believed in her son and helped him with valuable suggestions when Mustafa Kemal was attempting to open a branch of the "Homeland and Freedom Society", which he founded here in Damascus with his friends in 1906. has been.

After Thessaloniki was out of our borders at the end of the Balkan Wars, Zübeyde Hanım and her daughter Makbule Hanım came to Istanbul like many Turks. According to the information we have, Ragıp Bey, who is said to have died in Thessaloniki after the First World War, must have passed away just before this migration event. Because, if he was alive, he should have come to Istanbul with his family.

Zübeyde Hanım settled in the house number 76 in Akaretler, in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul. Together with his daughter, they started a new but troubled life in Istanbul. While Mustafa Kemal Pasha was fighting against the British in the Sinai Front, in the south of Palestine, as the Commander of the Seventh Army, he resigned from his post and went to Aleppo as a result of a disagreement with the Allied German Armies Commander Falkenhein. Wondering about her son, who had a serious "jaundice" disease here, Zübeyde Hanım went to Aleppo with Mustafa Kemal's son, whom she feared to be "blind", by taking Abdürrahim (Tunçok), who was adopted when he was three years old, and left with his mother to raise. He visited Mustafa Kemal and returned to Istanbul.

Mustafa Kemal Pasha left the Syrian front on 13 November 1918 and came to Istanbul. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who went directly to his mother's house, hugged her neck, kissed her hand, and embraced her sister and relieved her longing. It was a happy reunion for the family, who had little reunion in their lives.

Mustafa Kemal, who stayed in Pera Palas Hotel for a few days upon his arrival in Istanbul, was a guest at the house of his close friend Salih Fansa in Beyoğlu for a while. Later, Mustafa Kemal, who rented Madam Kasabya's three-storey house in Şişli, took his mother and sister living in Beşiktaş Akaretler with him, and reserved the third floor of the three-storey house for them. He lived on the middle floor and used the room on this floor facing the back garden as his bedroom. He had reserved the great hall as a meeting room. He was staying downstairs.

Mustafa Kemal had frequent meetings with his friends in this house during the most depressed days of the capital Istanbul, and lived in this house until he went on his journey to Samsun on 16 May 1919. This house in Şişli is now used as a museum.

The days that started with the departure to Samsun will be difficult and painful days for his mother and brother as well as for Mustafa Kemal. Meanwhile, Zübeyde Hanım, who heard the unfounded news that her son Mustafa Kemal "died" and was already sick, became very ill and partially paralyzed. A pleasing event takes place for Ms. Zübeyde in these troubled days. His daughter Makbule marries Mustafa Mecdi Bey, who left the military and went into business. Zübeyde Hanım returns to the house in Akaretler and continues to live here with her daughter and son-in-law.

These painful, troubled but hopeful days will continue throughout the National Struggle. Zübeyde Hanım's illness was increasing day by day. His mother's stay in Istanbul under siege made Mustafa Kemal sad, and he wrote letters to his mother even when he was in the line of fire. Her friends were helping Zübeyde Hanım and fulfilling all her wishes. It is seen in the telegrams sent mutually that Zübeyde Hanım wanted to see her son before she died and that her son also longed to meet his mother as soon as possible.

Mustafa Kemal, who was separated from his mother for three years, decided to bring his mother to Ankara at a time when the War of Independence was approaching. He was the President of the Turkish Grand National Assembly and the Commander-in-Chief. The year was 1922, and it was June. He was going to meet the French writer Claude Farrére, who requested a meeting with him, in Izmit, and his mother would come from Istanbul. Atatürk arrived in Adapazarı on 14 June 1922. They met with Zübeyde Hanım, who had arrived the day before and stayed at the house of Major Baha Bey, the Head of the Military Service, and spent the night in this house. Together, the mother and son returned to Ankara at 20:00 on 24 June 1922 in a car, and went directly to the Çankaya Mansion.

Zübeyde Hanım, who stayed in the mansion with Abdürrahim and Ragıp Bey's niece Fikriye, was getting worse and worse. Zübeyde Hanım, whose pain increased due to partial paralysis and rheumatism, was persuaded to go to İzmir and stay for a while, considering that the weather would be good for İzmir. Another purpose of this trip was to introduce Latife Hanım, whom Mustafa Kemal thought to marry, to Zübeyde Hanım. Chief Adjutant Salih (Bozok) Bey, who went to Izmir to find a suitable place to stay, prepared the Latife Ladies' summer house in Karşıyaka for Zübeyde Hanım.

While she was here, Zübeyde Hanım died on January 15, 1923. She was 66 years old. Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who had left Ankara on the evening of 14 January 1923 with his special train to go on a long trip in Western Anatolia, arrived in Eskişehir on 15 January. Just before daybreak, Emir called Sergeant Ali, "Is there any news?" Mustafa Kemal Pasha, looking sadly at Ali Sergeant, replied, "The password has been received, but it has not been solved, but I know that my mother is dead." Said. “I had a dream, I was walking around the green fields with my mother. All of a sudden, a storm came and took my mother away.” When the deciphered telegram was given to him, he read it, closed his eyes, thought for a moment and said, “We are not going to Izmir. Let them turn the train to Izmit,” he said.

On the same day, he sent the following telegram to Chief Aide Salih Bozok in Izmir: “... the heartbreaking news you gave me greatly affected me. Have the deceased perform the ceremony (appropriately the funeral ceremony) in an appropriate manner. May Allah give life and peace to our nation.”

Asım Gündüz, a classmate of Atatürk from the War Academy and the Chief of Staff of the Western Front in the War of Independence, was in İzmir at the time of Zübeyde Hanım's death. Asım Gündüz describes Zübeyde Hanım's funeral ceremony as follows: “Zübeyde Hanım had Latife Hanım, who was with her in her last hours, dictated a will. Latife Hanı first reported the news of Zübeyde Hanım's death to the Governor of İzmir, Mustafa Abdülhalik (Renda), and the governor had a big funeral ceremony prepared. On the first night, Latife Hanim summoned thirty-three people from Izmir's well-known hafizes and had a hatim made until the morning, and her hatim prayer lasted for three days.

“Almost the whole of Izmir participated in the funeral procession. Although there were governors, officers, commanders and teachers, the length of the funeral procession was one kilometer. The wreaths brought by the schools formed a cover over the grave. Western Front Chief of Staff Asım, Kazım (Özalp), Fahrettin (Altay), Mürsel (Baki), İzzettin (Çalışlar), Abdurrahman Nafiz (Gürman) Pashas were walking in front of the funeral procession. “Latife Hanım was dressed in a black coat, covered with a black veil, and wanted to join the funeral procession. But when her family and clergy prevented her from attending the funeral in Islam, she got on a carriage and followed the funeral. Latife Hanım distributed alms to hundreds of silver mecidis in the grave, had mevlut recited at her forty, and made ashura on the night of the 52nd, as she distributed to the poor.

Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who wandered around various places for about 12-13 days and followed the state affairs in accordance with his schedule, arrived at İzmir-Karşıyaka station via Manisa on January 27, 1923. He was accompanied by army commanders, ministers, deputies and his aide. İzmir Governor Abdülhalik Renda, Corps Commander Fahrettin Altay and Chief Aide Salih Bozok were among those who welcomed him. Again at the station, a large crowd of people and a car decorated with flowers were waiting for him. He greeted those gathered around him.

He would visit his mother first, just as he had visited his mother first in his health. He gave a touching and concise speech at his mother's grave that day. In his speech, as in his upbringing. He expressed the pain and sacrifice of his mother, who was always on his way during the years of the National Struggle. While expressing the troubles and pain he suffered because of himself, he also expressed his appreciation for his mother. Atatürk was deeply excited that day. He gave his most sincere and emotional speech at his mother's grave that day. Zübeyde Hanım was a devoted mother. His unmatched efforts in raising his son had passed. She endured the longing for her son for years, finally she died shortly after seeing his triumph.

Mustafa Kemal Pasha, while putting his life and all his assets to save his nation, could not take care of his mother enough. It was these feelings inside that made her cry and tell her deepest feelings when she visited her mother's grave for the first time with a large group. In his speech here, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, briefly talking about his mother's troubles, said:

“...I am without a doubt deeply saddened by the loss of Valde. But there is one thing that relieves me of this sadness and brings me consolation, and that is to see that the administration that destroyed and destroyed our motherland has been taken to the grave, never to return to it again. Valdem is under this ground, but may the National Sovereignty stand forever. This is the greatest strength that consoles me. Yes, Hakimiyet-i Milliye will continue forever. Let me repeat the oath of conscience that I have committed to the spirit of Valdem and the spirit of all ancestors. I swear and make my vow in front of Valdem's mausoleum and in the presence of Allah, I will never hesitate to go to Valdem if it is necessary for the protection and defense of the nation's production and domination by shedding so much blood. Let it be a debt of conscience and honor for me to give my life for the National Sovereignty.”

This speech of Mustafa Kemal was instrumental in the hearty cheers of the people of Karşıyaka and the people applauded him like crazy and shouted, "Long live my pasha... Long live you...".

Expressing his devotion to Ms. Zübeyde, Mustafa Kemal Pasha loved his mother very much by saying, “My mother and sister, whose virtue and womanhood I believe in, believed in and served me in the revolutionary works.” When she heard a song her mother loved, her eyes would tear up. Every morning when he woke up, he would do his cleaning, after getting dressed, he would send a message to his mother for a visit and ask for permission. Zübeyde Hanım would accept her son after she had prepared in the same way. In these meetings, Mustafa Kemal Pasha would kiss his mother's hand and receive her blessing. They would stay and chat with their mother for a while.

Zübeyde Hanım addresses her son as “Mustafam” or “Yellow Mustafam”; most of the time, he would find it rare, addressing or mentioning it as "Paşam" or "Yellow Pasha".

In the words of Cevat Abbas Gürer, one of Atatürk's aides, who was with him for most of his life, describing "Atatürk's mother, whom he loved and respected very much, and his condition in terms of decency and intelligence", the "Turkish Mother", who gave birth and raised a national hero, is "state How beautifully he reveals his decency and “virtue”:

“Mrs. Zübeyde was very interested in every situation of her son, who was orphaned at a young age. Because it was a great factor in his upbringing and being useful to the country after he grew up. She had literally been both mother and father to Atatürk.

“When she heard of the death sentence of her beloved son Mustafa, Ms. Zübeyde, who was so heartbroken, fell ill and fell into bed. The fact that he could not get accurate information from his son for a long time caused the disease to progress.

“Although Çankaya is now leading a very happy and happy life that she has given Ms. Zübeyde the opportunity to see and smell her precious and beloved son, she often spends her time in sickness.

“It takes a lot of writing to describe Ms. Zübeyde's creation, intelligence and behavior towards her environment. It was a duty for Atatürk not only to be a mother, but to visit this dignified, serious, high-minded great Turkish woman every day. Visits were not made without communication. Because mother and son would not see each other without preparation. The main rule of the relationship between the two was that Atatürk always be the visitor.

“As soon as the Eternal Chief woke up in the morning, if he was going to see his mother that day, he would get permission through someone from his mother. Then Atatürk was prepared as if he were going to attend a big ceremony.

“Mrs. Zübeyde, even in her sick bed, was preparing to accept Atatürk with great care. She combed her hair, covered her embroidered headscarf, and wore a silk gown over her embroidered crepe shirt from the Macedonian wedding dress girl's rich device. And after completing her Istanbulkari colored mashlah and formal attire, she would send the news that she was expecting her son.

“Mrs. Zübeyde used to address Atatürk as 'Mustafa'. For years, I have been involved in the privilege of gaining security, trust and affection among this big family. I was often present at the meetings of both elders together.

“My eyes, which gather together the happiness of raising a great, precious child and the pride of having a precious great mother; yes, I was getting emotional and happy when I saw live examples of how deep and deep-rooted, how decent and serious and how sincere the upbringing in Turkish society and its foundations are. I can say that Mrs. Zübeyde and Atatürk were in love with this mother and son.

“This mother started with lullabies that instilled in her son the love of homeland and nation when he was still a cradle child, raised him with feelings in every age, directed him to education, and instilled knowledge and wisdom. He, Mustafa Kemal, had made his son, the savior who had grown up and found his rank.

“At each of these visits, Atatürk would kiss the blessed hand of his mother with great respect. Then that big man would shrink in front of his mother, he would become Mustafa, even Mustafacik. Their conversations, their jokes, were signs of simmering love.

“I will present a situation that I witnessed in one of these mother-son meetings in Çankaya as an example of Ms. Zübeyde's fast-paced intelligence, whose value is unlimited:

“Atatürk kissed his mother's hand. As Mrs. Zübeyde extended her hand to her son, she wanted to embrace Atatürk with all the expression of her enthusiastic love in her eyes. She should have been proud to be the mother who, after embracing him, gave a unique saving gift to the beloved Turkish nation. But that didn't happen, that great Turkish mother, who was happy with her smiling and cute face, reached for the hand of the liver piece that was moving away in her arms: Atatürk said: 'What are you doing, mother?'... Ms. Zübeyde said quietly and with absolute seriousness: 'I am your mother, you are doing your duty to me by kissing my hand; but you are a head of state who saves the homeland and the nation. I am also a member of this holy nation and I am its subject, I can kiss your hand.' She gave the answer.

“Rather than kissing her son's hand, Ms. Zubeyde was signaling to those around her that her son's office was worthy of the greatest respect with her gesture.” 54


Ali Rıza Efendi and Zübeyde Hanım got married in 1870 or 1871. Zübeyde Hanım, who was 13-14 years old when she got married, was a very beautiful young girl, as described in her memoirs by her daughter Makbule: “My mother's youth is before my eyes... She is a tall, slender woman with golden hair and green eyes. Children have always thought of their mothers as the most beautiful woman in the world. But my mother, she was really beautiful...' 55

Ali Rıza Efendi was 31-32 years old and was a civil servant in the Evkaf Administration. She was 17-18 years older than Zübeyde, whom she aspires to. Especially the mother Ayşe Hanım, on the part of the girl, initially objects to the marriage, thinking that she will be separated from her daughter due to her civil service. In the end, Hüseyin Ağa, Mustafa Kemal's uncle, persuaded the family, the wedding was held and the two young people got married. Thus, the “historical marriage” that will present Mustafa Kemal Atatürk to the Turkish nation is realized.

This marriage, which Makbule Hanım explained in detail in her memoirs, starts with Ali Rıza Efendi's search for a wife similar to the girl he saw in his dream and whom he liked, and finally Hatice Hanım, the bride of her sister Mevlevi Kapu Sheikh, gave her the glad tidings when she saw Zübeyde. takes place on. 56

Immediately after their marriage, they settled in Ali Rıza Efendi's father's house in Thessaloniki. The first marriage years are spent in this house. First they have a daughter, they name her "Fatma" (1871/1872-1875). After that, they will have two boys. “Ahmet” (1874-1883) and “Omar” (1875-1883). These will be followed by “Mustafa” (1881-1938), “Makbule” (1885-1956) and “Naciye” (1899-1901).

This happy marriage goes through troubles from time to time due to the deaths of her first three and last children due to some epidemic diseases and the disruptions in Ali Rıza Efendi's business life, which does not work very regularly. Finally, the family, which was connected to life with the birth and existence of Mustafa, this time is shaken by the death of Ali Rıza Efendi.

When Ali Rıza Etendi died (1893), for Zübeyde Hanım, who was 36 years old and widowed with three children, Rapla Farm in Lankaza, managed by her brother Hüseyin Ağa, became a safe haven. When Hüseyin Efendi receives the news of his brother-in-law's death, he comes to Thessaloniki, to the house of his sister Zübeyde. He cannot leave her with her children in these difficult conditions of life and said to her sister Zübeyde, “I am the one who got you married to the deceased lifeless man. From now on, I will take care of you, I will raise these children.” He takes the family with him to Rapla Farm. 57


Zübeyde Hanım, who was widowed at a young age with her three children, begins to experience difficult times, especially economically, after she gives her son Mustafa to the Military Junior High School. The two mecidiye stipends paid to him with the children are far from providing for the family. At that time, Ragıp Efendi, one of the officials of the Reji administration, who immigrated from Larisa (Yenişehir), the center of Thessaly, which was abandoned to Greece, aspires to him.

Ragıp Efendi is also a widower with four children who lost his wife. Zübeyde Hanım was married to Ragıp Efendi by Şeyh Rıfat Efendi, the father-in-law of Kılıçoğlu Hakkı Bey. Despite being a wealthy person, Ragıp Efendi came to Zübeyde Hanım's house and settled down. Undoubtedly, as the eldest son of the house, Mustafa does not approve of this marriage and leaves the house and settles in the house of his own aunt Emine Hanım, who lives in Horhor Neighborhood. He rarely visits the house until he goes to the Monastery High School.

Ragıp Bey is actually a very kind and good-hearted person. Years later, Mustafa Kemal will tell Afetan about his stepfather: “...But later on, I became friends with that noble gentleman. It has been a good trainer for me. I appreciated that my mother had made such a family bond at a young age. But my childhood emotion was a rebellion against the fact that I had lost my father”. Regarding Ragıp Efendi, Mustafa Kemal Ali Fuat Cebesoy said, “He treated me very respectfully and treated me like a great man. He was a kind and gentle person.” According to sources, Ragıp Efendi died in Thessaloniki after the First World War; According to some sources, he was martyred in the Çanakkale Wars. However, as mentioned above, we know that Zübeyde Hanım and Makbule migrated to Istanbul after the Balkan Wars. There is no information that Ragıp Bey came to Istanbul with them. Therefore, Ragıp Bey must have died during or after the Balkan Wars.

One son of Ragıp Bey is Süreyya Bey (Toyran), and the other is Hakki Bey, a current officer. One of her daughters is named Rukiye. They are relatives of Fuat Bulca. Fikriye Hanım, who later fell madly in love with M. Kemal, whom she knew when she was 16 in 1913 and addressed her as "Brother", and therefore committed suicide, was one of the three children of Ragıp Bey's brother, Miralay Hüsamettin Bey. In other words, Fikriye was Ragıp Bey's nephew. The names of Hüsamettin Bey's other children were Enver and Jülide.” 58

1 T. Gökbilgin, “The Walks in the Settlement and Turkification of Rumelia”, III. Turkish History Congress (Ankara 15-20 November 1943) Papers, Ank.. 1948. p. 649.

2 T. Gokbilgin. Yuruks, Tatars and Evlad-i Fatihan in Rumelia. Ist. 1975, p. 6.

3 M. Eröz, Yörükler. Ist., 1991., p. 20-23.

4 Y. Halacoglu, XVIII. The Settlement Policy of the Ottoman Empire and the Settlement of Tribes in the Century, Ank.. 1988, p. 2-3.”

5 Regarding this, see: Ö. Turan, “Turkish Presence and Culture in Macedonia”, Bilig D., Issue: 3 (Fall 1996), p. 21 et al.

6 See on this subject: Ö. L. Barkan, Colonizer Turkish Dervishes, Ist., undated, I -72 p.

7 Y. Halaçoğlu, a., g., e., p. 3.

8 Y. Halaçoğlu, a., g., e., p. 4. The following works that have become classics on the Ottoman "relocation and resettlement" policy and methods can be looked at: Ö. L. Barkan, “Foundations and Assignments as a Settlement and Colonization Method in the Ottoman Empire”, Vakıflar D., Issue: 2 (Ankara 1942), p. 284-353. HE. L. Barkan, “Exiles as a Method of Settlement and Colonization in the Ottoman Empire”, Faculty of Economics Magazine, C: XI. (1951), p. 525-569. A: XIII. (1953), p. 56-78. A: XV. (1955). s. 209-237. C. Orhonlu, “The Settlement of Tribes in the Ottoman Empire”, Turkish Cultural Studies D., C: XV., issue: 1-2 (Ankara 1976). C. Orhonlu, Attempt to Settlement of Tribes in the Ottoman Empire (1691-1696), İst., 1963. 1-120 p. C. Orhonlu, Derbend Organization in the Ottoman Empire. İst., 1967, 1-175 hr Astronomy, Yuruks in Rumeli, Tatars and Evlad-ı Fatihan.

9 T. Gökbilgin, Yuruks, Tatars and Evlad-ı Fatihan in Rumelia, p. 9. 20, 254.

10 T. Gökbilgin, Yuruks, Tatars and Evlad-ı Fatihan in Rumeli, p. 27 et al. T. Gokbilgin. “The Walks in the Settlement and Turkification of Rumelia”, p. 654.

11 H. ŞekercioĞlu, “The Researches I Made in Anatolia About Atatürk's Ancestry and Dynasty”. Turkish Culture D., C: XIII., Issue: 145 (November 1974), p. 7.

12 H. Şekercioğlu, agm, p. 7.

13 F. Sumer. Oghuz (Turkmen) Histories-Boy Organization-Epics, Ank.. 1967, p. 60 et al.

14 H. Şekercioğlu. agm, p. 8-9.1. Miroglu, XVI. Bayburt Sanacak in the 19th Century. Ist., 1975, p. 19.

15 F. Sumer, supra, p. 174-180.

16 See on this subject: M. Eröz. Our National Culture and Issues, İst., 1983, p. 177.

17 I. Miroglu, supra, p. 54, 80, 105.

18 Unfortunately, some of these historical and ethnological names have been unconsciously changed. On this subject, see Milliyet, 28 June 1984 (Orhan Duru's article).

19 Of these notebooks, Kocacik Nomads Notebook dated 1543, Prime Ministry Ottoman Archives, Land Registry Books. It is registered in Old No: 82 (55 Foil, Size: 13x39 outside, I2x38 inside). This notebook is written in new letters by Prof. Dr. Published by M. Tayyib Gökbilgin: Rumeli'de Yuruks, Tatars and Evlad-ı Fatihan, p. 173-243. The Kocacik Nomads Notebook dated 1584. It is registered in the Prime Ministry Ottoman Archives, Land Registry Books, No: 614, Old No: 197 (84 Foil, Size: 17/46.5); “Kocacık Yorukleri Kanunnamesi” (old text) and “Kocacık Nomads and Tanridağı Yurukleri Book Index and Arabic Title” (old and new text) at the beginning of this book were published by M. Tayyib Gökbilgin, ibid, p. 244-248

20 MT Gökbilgin, agcs 90 et al.

21 T. Gokbilgin. agc, p. 74-78.

22 T. Gökbilgin, ibid. s. 78-81.

23 T. Gökbilgin, supra, p. 257-272. Location of the book: Prime Ministry Ottoman Archive, Mevkufat Book. No: 2737.

24 EB Chapoleo. Kemal Ataturk and the History of the National Struggle. 3rd Edition, İst., 1958. 25 EB Şapolyo, supra, p. 21.

26 Kılıç Ali, Atatürk's Specialties, Sel Publications, İst., 1955, p. 7.

27 EB Şapolyo, supra, p. 22.

28 O. Turan, -Turkish Presence and Culture in Macedonia”. Bilig D.. Issue:3 (Fall 1996), p. 21-32.

29 J. Ivanof. Le Question Mac Edonienne, Paris, 1920. p. 148-151. Posted by: O. S. Cosar. ibid, C: I.. p. 15.

30 A. Araslı, “Ata's Genealogy”. Milliyet, 10 November 1993, p. 9. Here is a photograph of Atatürk's grandfather's house.

31 B. Göksel, supra, p.29-30. In this work, there are documents showing Atatürk's family tree on the father's side, the continuing members of the family, and the relations between the family and Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.

32 1. Sungu, “Atatürk's Father Ali Rıza Efendi and the Asakir-i Milliye Battalion to which he was a member”, Belleten D.. C: II., issue: 10 (April 1939), p. 239.

33 EB Şapolyo, supra, p. 17. O. S. Coşar, ibid. A:l., p. 13. The disorder in Çayağzı and Ali Rıza Efendi's struggle with the gangs. It is described in detail in the memoirs of Ms. Makbule. See: M. Atadan. “My Big Brother Atatürk”. New Istanbul Newspaper. 21 November 1952 (serial no: 21) et al.

34 I. Sungu, agm O. S. Coşar, supra, C:1., p. 12. C. Sönmez, Atatürk's Mother Zübeyde Hanım, Ank., 1998, p. 9 et al.

35 EB Şapolyo, supra, p. 30.

36 EB Şapolyo, agc, p. 31.

37 EB Şapolyo, supra, p. 31.

38 EB Şapolyo, supra, p. 31.

39 AE Yalman, “History of His Excellency the Chief of the Grand National Assembly, Müşir Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha”, Vakit Newspaper. January 10, 1922.

40 M. Atadan, “My Big Brother Atatürk”, Yeni İstanbul Newspaper. January 12, 1953 (Tefrika No: 72) et al.

41 O. S. Coşar, agc C:L p. 1 10.

42 FR Unat, “Atatürk's Educational Life and the National Education System of the Age in which He Was Raised”. Turkish Historical Society Atatürk Conferences I.. Ank.. 1964. p.82 and note: 10.

43 For their works and views, see: T. Gökbilgin, supra, p. 9-11.

44 T. Gökbilgin, ibid. s. 12.

45 T. Gökbilgin, ag c, p. 13.

46 B. Göksel. A Study on Atatürk's Genealogy, Ank., 1988, p. 6.

47 Prime Ministry Ottoman Archives. Mevkufat Notebook, No: 2737.

48 T. Gökbilgin, supra, p. 265.

49 T. Gokbilgin. age, p. 264.

50 T. Gökbilgin. age, p. 257-272.

51 M. Atadan. “My Big Brother Atatürk”. Yeni Istanbul Newspaper, I November 1952-22 March 1953.

52 EB Chapoleo. age, p. 22-23.

53 L. Kinross, supra, p. 11th.

54 A serious biography has been prepared about the Zübeyde Inn. Most of the information we give here is taken from this work: C. Sönmez, Atatürk's Mother Zübeyde Hanım, Atatürk Research Center Publication, 2nd Enlarged Edition, Ank., 1998, 1-136.

55 M. Atadan. “My Big Brother Atatürk”, Yeni İstanbul Newspaper. November 12, 1952.

56 M. Atadan, agm, 13 November 1952 et al.

57 M. Erenli, ibid. s. 2.

58 Regarding this marriage of Ms. Zübeyde, see: S. Yeşilyurt. Zübeyde Hanım's Second Marriage and Kemalism, Arık.. 1996, p. 23 et al. C. Sonmez, ag c, p. 41-42. HE. S. Cosar. agc C:I., p. 172-173. EB Şapolyo, ag c, p. 41. AF Cebesoy. Memoirs of My Classmate Atatürk School and Junior Officer, Revolution Inscription, Istanbul. Undated, p. 16. S. Obviously, Fikriye. Ank., 1995, p. 66 et al.

Dr. Ali Guler

Source:  ATATÜRK RESEARCH CENTER JOURNAL, Issue 45, Volume: XV, November 1999

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Descendants of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk