Atatürk's Life and Biography
Atatürk's Life (Abstract) "The only extraordinary thing in my birth is that I was born as a 'Turk'." Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
ATATÜRK'S LIFE (Atatürk Biography)
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was born in Thessaloniki in 1881.* His father is Ali Rıza Efendi and his mother is Zübeyde Hanım. Ali Rıza Efendi was a native of Thessaloniki. Their distant grandfathers left Vidin and settled in Serres, and from there they came to Thessaloniki. Ali Rıza Efendi worked as a customs officer for a while, then left the civil service and engaged in the timber trade. Atatürk's mother, Zübeyde Hanım, was also a member of an old Turkish family settled in the town called Langaza, near Thessaloniki.
This family was descended from the nomads who had passed from Anatolia to Rumelia and were known as Varyemezoğulları. This family owned large farms in Langaza; Besides agriculture, they were engaged in animal husbandry.
Upon the death of Ali Rıza Efendi, who married Zübeyde Hanım in 1871 at the age of fifty, in 1888, the task of raising and raising little Mustafa, who was seven or eight years old, fell to Zübeyde Hanım, a great Turkish woman.
Little Mustafa continued his primary education in Hafız Mehmet Efendi's neighborhood school for a while, following his mother's request; but soon after, at the request of his father, he transferred to Şemsi Efendi School, which provides contemporary education in Thessaloniki, and finished primary school there. Şemsi Efendi was extremely pleased to have little Mustafa in his school, as he appreciated the talents and intelligence of his new student. Little Mustafa's father died while he was studying at this school. At this time, he had two younger sisters, Makbule and Naciye. When their father died, little Mustafa was seven years old, Makbule was just one year old, and Naciye was forty days old. These youngest siblings died in Thessaloniki when they were young girls.
Upon Ali Rıza Efendi's death, Zübeyde Hanım and her three children settled with her brother Hüseyin Efendi, who was a foreman at the Rapla farm near Thessaloniki for a while. Due to his farm life, Little Mustafa's education was inevitably disrupted for a while. But she soon returned to Thessaloniki and continued her education with her aunt, where she had left off. After graduating from Şemsi Efendi Primary School, Little Mustafa attended Thessaloniki Civil High School for a while, but after his Arabic teacher named Kaymak Hafız unjustly hit him with a stick, he left this school and in 1893, he went to Thessaloniki Military Secondary School with his own will and decision . 2He continued his education here. Mustafa had really liked this school. He soon showed himself among his friends with his intelligence and superior abilities and won the love of his teachers. Captain Mustafa Efendi, who was a mathematics teacher at this school, added the name "Kemal" to the end of his name to distinguish him from the other Mustafas in the class in the face of his young student's superior abilities and intelligence. Now the young student had become Mustafa Kemal.
After graduating from Thessaloniki Military High School, Mustafa Kemal entered the Manastır Military High School in 1896 . In this school, he made friends with Ömer Naci, who came from Bursa Military High School. This person, who would later be known as a famous orator, played an active role in Mustafa Kemal's love of rhetoric and literature. Ali Fethi (Okyar), who would become one of his close friends, was also a student at this school. Young Mustafa Kemal does not neglect his foreign language education as well as his military education; He was taking French lessons when he returned to Thessaloniki on leave during the summer months.
Young Mustafa Kemal graduated from the Manastır Military High School in November 1898 with second place and entered the Military Academy in Istanbul on March 13, 1899. After 3 years of successful education, he finished this school with the rank of lieutenant on February 10, 1902 and continued his education at the Military Academy in the same year. In 1903, he entered the second year of the Military Academy and became a first lieutenant. On January 11, 1905, he graduated from the Military Academy with the rank of staff captain. Mustafa Kemal introduced himself to his friends and teachers at the Military Academy and the Military Academy with his intelligence, talents and superior personality, and won their sincere love and respect. In addition to his great interest in military lessons, he also had a curiosity and inclination towards mathematics, literature and good speech. in Harbiye and the Military Academy, He was known as an intellectual and revolutionary officer because he was interested in the causes of the country and the nation and expressed his thoughts with courage. The period was the period of tyranny and this behavior could be against them; However, the fact that he was loved by his environment and his sincerity in his thoughts prevented him from falling victim to any scheme. However, in the days following his graduation from the War Academy, his thoughts and situation against the tyranny and the sultanate regime aroused suspicion and he was imprisoned in Istanbul for a short time; Afterwards, he was assigned to Damascus, Syria on February 5, 1905 as a kind of suspension. His sincerity in his thoughts prevented him from falling victim to any scheme. However, in the days following his graduation from the War Academy, his thoughts and situation against the tyranny and the sultanate regime aroused suspicion and he was imprisoned in Istanbul for a short time; Afterwards, he was assigned to Damascus, Syria on February 5, 1905 as a kind of suspension. His sincerity in his thoughts prevented him from falling victim to any scheme. However, in the days following his graduation from the War Academy, his thoughts and situation against the tyranny and the sultanate regime aroused suspicion and he was imprisoned in Istanbul for a short time; Afterwards, he was assigned to Damascus, Syria on February 5, 1905 as a kind of suspension.
During the three years that he stayed in Damascus under the command of the 5th Army and completed his staff training, Mustafa Kemal traveled almost all over Syria on duty, and saw more closely the disruptions in the country's administration and the deficiencies in the education and training of the army. Here in October 1905, he secretly founded the "Vatan ve Hürriyet Cemiyeti" with some of his trusted friends. Together with these friends, he expanded the society they founded in Beirut, Jaffa and Jerusalem. He went from Jaffa secretly to Thessaloniki via Egypt and Greece for a while, where he opened a branch of the "Homeland and Freedom Society" and returned to Jaffa. Although it was heard by the government that he was away from the region, he was not punished because his superiors in Damascus protected him.
Mustafa Kemal was appointed to the 3rd Army Headquarters in Manastır on 13 October 1907 and came to Thessaloniki to work in the Staff Branch of this headquarters in Thessaloniki. At this time, the "Committee of Union and Progress", which included the founders of the "Vatan ve Hürriyet Cemiyeti" branch in Thessaloniki, was operating in secret. Mustafa Kemal joined this society and began to serve. Liberation of the country from the rule of tyranny and the innovations to be made were his chief thoughts. Shortly after his arrival in Thessaloniki, on 22 June 1908, the duty of railway inspector between Skopje and Thessaloniki was given to Mustafa Kemal in addition to his duty in the 3rd Army Headquarters.
Meanwhile, the "Committee of Union and Progress" operating in secret in Rumeli forces Abdulhamit to re-enact the 1876 Constitution and to call the closed Parliament for a meeting again. These initiatives of the Committee of Union and Progress were gradually completed by the II. He reached for the proclamation of the Constitutional Monarchy.
When the Second Constitutional Monarchy was proclaimed on 23 July 1908, Mustafa Kemal was continuing his military service in Thessaloniki with the rank of Kolağası, while working in the "Community of Union and Progress", he closely followed the political developments in Istanbul. He, II. He did not see what was done after a great revolution like the Constitutional Monarchy enough, he believed that bigger and more radical changes should be made in the country by taking advantage of this opportunity; but his views did not conform to the views and thoughts of the notables of the "Community of Union and Progress". Despite this, he did not hesitate to warn them with his ideas.
II. Nine months had passed since the proclamation of the Constitutional Monarchy, and on April 13, 1909, a great revolt, supported by reactionary circles, developed in Istanbul against this movement. Mustafa Kemal was appointed Chief of Staff of the Action Army under the command of Hüseyin Hüsnü Pasha, which was formed in Rumeli to suppress this revolt, which was known as the "31 March Incident" in the old history, and with this army on 15/16 April 1909 from Thessaloniki to Istanbul. it moved; however, a change in command was made when the Action Army arrived at Hadımköy near Istanbul. Mahmut Şevket Pasha, the 3rd Army Commander from Thessaloniki, took command; Major Enver Bey was appointed as the Chief of Staff. The Movement Army entered Istanbul on April 24, 1909. Mustafa Kemal was also a member of the Staff Committee of this army. "Army of Action" Abdulhamid was dethroned after the Sultan's control of the situation, and Sultan Reşat was brought in his place. After this reactionary event was suppressed, Mustafa Kemal did not stay long in Istanbul and returned to Thessaloniki on 22 May 1909. During the military maneuvers in Thessaloniki and its environs, he boldly defended his thoughts and opinions and attracted the attention of his superiors; On the other hand, he was preparing copyright and translation works on military education subjects.
Mustafa Kemal, II. After the Second Constitutional Monarchy, he began to sense the dangers of the army's close relationship with the "Community of Union and Progress" and its involvement in politics, and he openly expressed these views at the "Great Congress of Union and Progress" convened in Thessaloniki on September 22, 1909. But the leaders of the Society did not share his views. Mustafa Kemal kept himself away from the Society and gave it to his military duty directly. This is how his disagreement with the Committee of Union and Progress began.
At the end of 1909, a great revolt broke out in Albania, and a division of soldiers sent there was insufficient to subdue the revolt. Thereupon, Minister of War Mahmut Şevket Pasha came to Thessaloniki in May 1910. As the head of a large force prepared here, he moved to Albania with Mustafa Kemal on the staff board. The revolt was completely suppressed within a month. Mustafa Kemal returned to Thessaloniki again.
While Mustafa Kemal was successfully carrying out his duty in Thessaloniki, he was sent to France in September 1910 to monitor the Picardian maneuvers. Here he got to know the French army and its commanders closely. Mustafa Kemal was dismissed from his duty at the 3rd Army Headquarters on January 15, 1911, and was assigned as the deputy commander of the 38th Infantry Regiment in Thessaloniki. He also showed great success in this task; He won the admiration of his superiors and the love and respect of his friends, as in the past. After serving as the Deputy Commander of the 38th Infantry Regiment, which lasted about eight months, he was summoned to Istanbul by the Ministry of War. Thereupon, Mustafa Kemal came to Istanbul in mid-September 1911 and was appointed to the General Staff.
On September 29, 1911, with the Italians' declaration of war on the Ottoman Empire, the Tripoli-West War started. Mustafa Kemal left Istanbul on 15 October 1911 to volunteer in this region. Following his arrival in Tripoli, he led the local volunteer forces in Tobruk and Derne regions for a while. Meanwhile, on 27 November 1911, he was promoted to the rank of major.
In October 1912, the Balkan War had begun. Mustafa Kemal arrived in Istanbul on 24 October 1912, departing from Derne. On November 25, 1912, he was appointed to the Directorate of Operations Branch of the Dardanelles Forces Forces Command in Gallipoli. Upon this assignment, he came to Gallipoli. The events developed rapidly, Thessaloniki had fallen, and the Bulgarian army had advanced to Çatalca. This sad state of affairs made him very sad. After a while on this front, he was appointed as the Chief of Staff of the Bolayır Corps. While he was in this position, his great services were seen in the recapture of Dimetoka* and Edirne from the Bulgarians. Mustafa Kemal was appointed to the Sofia Attaché on October 27, 1913, shortly after the end of the Balkan War. Bucharest, from 11 January 1914 He was also given the task of executing the Belgrade and Çetine Attachés. He was also given the task of running the Sofia Attachés. His close friend Ali Fethi (Okyar) was also in Sofia as an ambassador when he was appointed to the Sofia Attaché. Mustafa Kemal was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel on 1 March 1914 while he was attached to Sofia. He stayed in Sofia until the end of January 1915.
While Mustafa Kemal was still in Sofia, World War I had started with Germany's declaration of war on Russia on August 1, 1914. Mustafa Kemal follows the developing political and military events with great attention; On the other hand, he was reporting his views and thoughts to the Ministry of War. According to him, the Ottoman Empire should have stayed out of this great war unless it became necessary. However, the rapid development of events forced the Ottoman Empire to enter the war on the side of the Central Powers on 29 October 1914. Upon these developments, Mustafa Kemal requested an effective service from the Commander-in-Chief, but this request was not fulfilled for a while. Finally, upon his insistence, they appointed him to the 19th Division Command to be established in Tekirdağ on 20 January 1915. Upon this appointment, Mustafa Kemal moved to Sofia. He left Istanbul and returned to Istanbul; He immediately moved to his new post and formed his division. This division was transferred from Tekirdağ to Maydos (Eceabat) on February 25, 1915, upon the need for a short time later. Mustafa Kemal served here as the Commander of the Maydos Region, to be placed under the command of the 9th Division's 2 Infantry Regiments and some artillery units, in addition to the 19th Division.
Important events were taking place on the Gallipoli Peninsula. Although the British and French navies attempted to cross the Dardanelles on March 18, 1915, they could not get any results against the successful defense of the coastal artillery and suffered heavy losses. The enemy, who could not pass the Dardanelles with his navy, decided to force the Gallipoli Peninsula by landing this time. While the events were developing in this way, the General Staff decided to establish the 5th Army in Gallipoli on March 24, 1915, and appointed Marshal Liman von Sanders as its commander. Marshal Liman von Sanders made his plan by dividing his forces into three groups against a possible enemy attack; He had taken the forces commanded by Mustafa Kemal into the army reserve. In accordance with this plan, Mustafa Kemal moved to Bigali with his division on April 18, 1915.
The British troops, together with the French forces and the ANZAC Corps, started the first landing movement from the shores of Arıburnu, Seddülbahir and Kumkale on the morning of 25 April 1915. The enemy landing from Kumkale shores could not develop; The landing at Seddülbahir was stopped by the intense fire of the coastal artillery and the counterattack of our forces. The British troops and ANZAC corps landing on the shores of Arıburnu, on the other hand, found Mustafa Kemal in front of them. As soon as Mustafa Kemal saw that the landing had begun from the shores of Arıburnu, he quickly directed his forces from Bigali to Conkbayırı. The British forces advancing from Arıburnu to Conkbayırı were forced to retreat that day by the attack of the 19th Division forces commanded by Mustafa Kemal.
In the Conkbayırı attack, the Turkish soldiers were fighting with unprecedented faith and courage, and the greatest heroic scenes in history were exhibited. The genius commander added the following sentences to the order he gave to the commanders: "I do not order you to attack; I order you to die! Other forces and commanders may replace us in the time that will pass until we die!" 4
Although this intense landing, which started on April 25, 1915, was pushed to the shore by our forces, the enemy continued the landing operations on April 26 and 27, 1915. There were occasional violent clashes with the British who wanted to advance; but every attack of the enemy failed in the face of the heroic defense of the Turkish soldiers. Mustafa Kemal was promoted to the rank of colonel on June 1, 1915, upon these outstanding achievements in the Çanakkale Front. The enemy was determined to make a new landing in Çanakkale, even though he could not succeed and make no progress. In order for the planned landing to take place, first of all, the Turkish forces in Arıburnu, Seddülbahir and Kumkale, which formed the first lines of resistance, had to be displaced. For this purpose, the British left Arıburnu on 6 August 1915, On August 7, 1915, they attacked again with artillery fire with the forces supported from the Anafartalar bay. There were fierce battles between these forces and the forces of the 19th Division under the command of Mustafa Kemal, day and night. The situation became critical as the enemy attack tended to spread over a wide front. Thereupon, with the order of the 5th Army Commander Marshal Liman von Sanders, the command was changed and Colonel Mustafa Kemal was appointed to the "Anafartalar Group Command" on the night of 8 August 1915. Mustafa Kemal, who took command that night, pushed the advancing British forces back to the shores where they landed, with his attack on the morning of 9 August 1915 without waiting. In the evening of the same day, he went to the Conkbayırı region and attacked the forces there on the morning of 10 August 1915; As a result of these attacks and bayonet wars, which were developed in the form of raids, the enemy was completely expelled from Conkbayırı within four hours. Thus, the Turks completely dominated the Anafartalar region.
As in the 25 April 1915 attack, Mustafa Kemal himself was in the line of fire in the 9 and 10 August attacks, gave orders from the line of fire, and this behavior became an unspeakable source of courage for the officers and privates with whom he fought. He escaped certain death when a piece of shrapnel targeting his heart in Conkbayırı hit the clock in his breast pocket and returned. The heroism, determination and high command ability he showed during these wars earned him a great reputation both in the country and abroad. He was now known as the "Hero of Anafartalar".
The British, who could not make any progress after months of landings and wars, withdrew from Çanakkale with their supporters at the end of December 1915. The inability of the enemies to pass the Dardanelles, prevented the occupation of Istanbul; It had extinguished the dreams of the British to connect with their allies, Russia, via the Marmara and Black Sea. All these events, in a sense, also affected the course of World War I and changed the direction of world history. In these wars, the British were undoubtedly more numerous than the Turks in terms of people, tools and equipment; however, what they forgot was the heroism of the Turkish soldiers and the factor of Mustafa Kemal that directed this heroism.
Mustafa Kemal was of the opinion that in the last months of 1915, when the Dardanelles Wars lost their former intensity, with a final attack we would make the enemy completely defeated by removing it from the shores where he was holding on. However, this proposal was not accepted by the 5th Army Commander, Marshal Liman von Sanders, because of the fear that the enemy's artillery fire from the shore would cause heavy losses. There was nothing left to do on this front anymore. Mustafa Kemal left Çanakkale on 9 December 1915, leaving the "Anafartalar Group Command" to Fevzi (Çakmak) Pasha; He returned to Istanbul. On January 16, 1916, Mustafa Kemal was appointed to the 16th Corps Command, which was headquartered in Edirne, and came to Edirne upon this assignment. Shortly after, this Corps Headquarters was appointed to Diyarbakir by the Commander-in-Chief. Mustafa Kemal was appointed as the commander of this corps upon the decision to be transferred to the eastern front and to establish a new corps with the same name on the Eastern Front. He came to Diyarbakir on 27 March 1916 and took command. On April 1, 1916, he was promoted to the rank of general. After a short preparation following his arrival in Diyarbakir, on the morning of August 2, 1916, the forces under his command attacked in the direction of Bitlis and Muş; There were fierce clashes between the Russians and our two divisions in the form of attacks and counter-attacks. Finally, Muş on 7 August 1916 and Bitlis on 8 August 1916 were liberated from the enemy occupation by our forces. (Unfortunately, Muş fell into the hands of the Russians on August 25, 1916. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, during the 2nd Army Command, saved Muş from Russian occupation for the second time on April 30, 1917.) Upon the decision to establish a new corps with the same name, Mustafa Kemal was appointed as the commander of this corps. He came to Diyarbakir on 27 March 1916 and took command. On April 1, 1916, he was promoted to the rank of general. After a short preparation following his arrival in Diyarbakir, on the morning of August 2, 1916, the forces under his command attacked in the direction of Bitlis and Muş; There were fierce clashes between the Russians and our two divisions in the form of attacks and counter-attacks. Finally, Muş on 7 August 1916 and Bitlis on 8 August 1916 were liberated from the enemy occupation by our forces. (Unfortunately, Muş fell into the hands of the Russians on August 25, 1916. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, during the 2nd Army Command, saved Muş from Russian occupation for the second time on April 30, 1917.) Upon the decision to establish a new corps with the same name, Mustafa Kemal was appointed as the commander of this corps. He came to Diyarbakir on 27 March 1916 and took command. On April 1, 1916, he was promoted to the rank of general. After a short preparation following his arrival in Diyarbakir, on the morning of August 2, 1916, the forces under his command attacked in the direction of Bitlis and Muş; There were fierce clashes between the Russians and our two divisions in the form of attacks and counter-attacks. Finally, Muş on 7 August 1916 and Bitlis on 8 August 1916 were liberated from the enemy occupation by our forces. (Unfortunately, Muş fell into the hands of the Russians on August 25, 1916. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, during the 2nd Army Command, saved Muş from Russian occupation for the second time on April 30, 1917.) He came to Diyarbakir on 27 March 1916 and took command. On April 1, 1916, he was promoted to the rank of general. After a short preparation following his arrival in Diyarbakir, on the morning of August 2, 1916, the forces under his command attacked in the direction of Bitlis and Muş; There were fierce clashes between the Russians and our two divisions in the form of attacks and counter-attacks. Finally, Muş on 7 August 1916 and Bitlis on 8 August 1916 were liberated from the enemy occupation by our forces. (Unfortunately, Muş fell into the hands of the Russians on August 25, 1916. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, during the 2nd Army Command, saved Muş from Russian occupation for the second time on April 30, 1917.) He came to Diyarbakir on 27 March 1916 and took command. On April 1, 1916, he was promoted to the rank of general. After a short preparation following his arrival in Diyarbakir, on the morning of August 2, 1916, the forces under his command attacked in the direction of Bitlis and Muş; There were fierce clashes between the Russians and our two divisions in the form of attacks and counter-attacks. Finally, Muş on 7 August 1916 and Bitlis on 8 August 1916 were liberated from the enemy occupation by our forces. (Unfortunately, Muş fell into the hands of the Russians on August 25, 1916. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, during the 2nd Army Command, saved Muş from Russian occupation for the second time on April 30, 1917.) After a short preparation following his arrival, on the morning of August 2, 1916, the forces under his command attacked in the direction of Bitlis and Muş; There were fierce clashes between the Russians and our two divisions in the form of attacks and counter-attacks. Finally, Muş on 7 August 1916 and Bitlis on 8 August 1916 were liberated from the enemy occupation by our forces. (Unfortunately, Muş fell into the hands of the Russians on August 25, 1916. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, during the 2nd Army Command, saved Muş from Russian occupation for the second time on April 30, 1917.) After a short preparation following his arrival, on the morning of August 2, 1916, the forces under his command attacked in the direction of Bitlis and Muş; There were fierce clashes between the Russians and our two divisions in the form of attacks and counter-attacks. Finally, Muş on 7 August 1916 and Bitlis on 8 August 1916 were liberated from the enemy occupation by our forces. (Unfortunately, Muş fell into the hands of the Russians on August 25, 1916. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, during the 2nd Army Command, saved Muş from Russian occupation for the second time on April 30, 1917.) It fell back into the hands of the Russians. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, during the 2nd Army Command, saved Muş from Russian occupation for the second time on April 30, 1917.) It fell back into the hands of the Russians. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, during the 2nd Army Command, saved Muş from Russian occupation for the second time on April 30, 1917.)
Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who served as the Commander of the 16th Corps on the Eastern Front, was appointed to the 2nd Army Command by proxy on 12 December 1916, when Ahmet İzzet Pasha went to Istanbul on leave for a while. The Chief of Staff of this army, whose headquarters was in Diyarbakır, was Colonel İsmet (İnönü) Bey. Mustafa Kemal Pasha's acquaintance with İnönü and his work in the chain of command coincided with these dates.
Although Mustafa Kemal Pasha went to Damascus and inspected the Sinai Front after he was appointed as the Commander of the Hejaz Forces Expedition on February 17, 1917, after a short time this command was abolished - instead of Ahmet Izzet Pasha- he became the Deputy Commander of the 2nd Army. assigned to. Returning to Diyarbakir again, Mustafa Kemal Pasha was appointed as the 2nd Army Command on 16 March 1917. However, he did not stay in this task for long, and on July 5, 1917, he was appointed to the 7th Army Command, which was decided to be established in Aleppo under the Yıldırım Army Group Command. Marshal Falkenhayn was commanding the Yıldırım Army Group. Mustafa Kemal Pasha came to Aleppo on 23 August 1917 and started his duty. But, After a while, a disagreement arose between him and Field Marshal Falkenhayn in terms of military views and the operation to be carried out; As a result of this disagreement, Mustafa Kemal Pasha resigned from the 7th Army Command on 6 October 1917. Although he was offered his old job in Diyarbakır again, he did not accept it and came to Istanbul on leave. He was assigned to the General Headquarters in Istanbul on November 7, 1917. However, he soon joined the trip to Germany in the entourage of Crown Prince Vahdettin Efendi to visit the German General Headquarters and the German fronts. During this trip, which took place between December 15, 1917 and January 4, 1918, Mustafa Kemal made researches in German military circles and met with the German Emperor II. He met with Wilhelm and the well-known commanders of the time. To them -even if they don't like- World War I'
The photo he took with a suit he bought from Karlsbad, Austria, where he went for treatment. (July 1918)
Mustafa Kemal Pasha, after returning to Istanbul from his 20-day trip to Germany, went to Vienna and Karlsbad for kidney disease and received treatment. Covering the period of 13 May 1918 - 4 August 1918, this trip returned to the 7th Army under the command of Marshal Liman von Sanders, who was appointed as the Commander of the Yıldırım Army Group, replacing Marshal Falkenhayn, on August 7, 1918, and became the commander again on August 26, 1918. He arrived in Aleppo in 1918. Mustafa Kemal Pasha fought successful defensive battles against the British on this front. In the face of the reinforced British forces, the Turkish army in this region was saved from disintegration with his superior management, and succeeded in withdrawing to Aleppo in a great order. However, World War I was developing against Germany and its supporters. 29 September 1918' Bulgaria withdrew from the war, Germany on October 4, 1918, and Austria-Hungary on October 5, 1918 requested a ceasefire. The Talat Pasha Cabinet resigned in Istanbul, and the new cabinet was formed by Ahmet İzzet Pasha on 14 October 1918. In the face of these developments, Mustafa Kemal Pasha continued his military and political suggestions to the authorities, but he still could not get them accepted. Finally, on October 30, 1918, the Ottoman Empire withdrew from the First World War by signing the Armistice of Mudros with the Entente Powers.
Although Mustafa Kemal Pasha was appointed as the Commander of the Yıldırım Army Group, replacing Marshal Liman von Sanders, on the day the Armistice of Mudros was signed, there was nothing left to do. On November 7, 1918, this group command was abolished by the will of the Sultan and he was given the command of the Ministry of War, and Mustafa Kemal Pasha came to Istanbul on November 13, 1918, departing from Adana. Now Turkey was living under the terms of the ceasefire.
The conditions of the country and the nation were harsh. At the end of a great war, as a defeated state, on October 30, 1918, an agreement with heavy conditions called the "Mondros Armistice Agreement" was signed, based on the terms of this agreement, many parts of the country were occupied by the victorious states, our army was disbanded, and all weapons and ammunition were given to the victorious states. . As the Ottoman lands were completely disintegrated, Anatolia, the homeland of the Turks, was divided among the victorious states. The Italians had landed in Antalya. Iskenderun, Adana, Mersin, Antep, Maras, Urfa were under occupation. The British took over the administration in Kars. Thrace was under occupation. The enemy fleet was anchored in the waters of Istanbul. The Dardanelles and Istanbul Straits were occupied. Istanbul and the Istanbul Government, Allied Powers' It was under pressure and control. The sultan and the government were the tools of the enemies, helpless and confused, they were only looking for a way of safety and salvation for themselves. Foreign officers were traveling in almost every city of Anatolia, giving instructions as representatives of the Entente States. The Greeks were also busy with the preparations for the invasion of Izmir; they were making great efforts in this way, trying to persuade the Allied Powers. Finally, on May 15, 1919, they landed in Izmir. They were trying to persuade the Allies. Finally, on May 15, 1919, they landed in Izmir. They were trying to persuade the Allies. Finally, on May 15, 1919, they landed in Izmir.
Mustafa Kemal foresaw that events would develop in this way. As a matter of fact, 5 days after the Armistice of Mudros, on November 5, 1918, orders to demobilize the armies began to come from the Ministry of War -in accordance with the Armistice Agreement. Atatürk sent the first warning telegram from Adana to Grand Vizier Ahmet İzzet Pasha on 5 November 1918: "I seriously suggest that you do not demobilize the army unless you take the necessary precautions! If we demobilize the armies and obey everything the British say, it will not be possible to prevent the passions of the enemy." " 5 This warning to the Grand Vizier shows that Atatürk's hope of salvation did not fade, and that he never succumbed to the pessimism and despair that surrounded many, even when it was thought that everything was over.
But it is a pity that all these justified objections made by Mustafa Kemal Pasha are ineffective and the army's demobilization continues rapidly. Because the general opinion was that we could not enter into any struggle with the Allied Powers and that such a struggle would result in our detriment. In that case, we would not offend the Entente Powers, but would fulfill the terms of the Armistice of Mudros. This was the view and behavior of the Istanbul Government.
Despite this despair in the Sultan and his government, our nation is making every effort to defend itself against unjust occupation and invasions; There were clashes between the enemy and local forces in various parts of the country. On the other hand, national organizations were forming in Anatolia in order to oppose the aggressive enemy and seek solutions for salvation. However, all these organizations could not be as effective as desired due to their separate activities, and could not show a movement and unity covering the whole country.
Armistice period Turkey is an incredibly complex Turkey. In addition to national societies such as Müdafaa-i Hukuk, Muhafaza-i Hukuk, and Redd-i İlhak, which pioneered regional resistance movements, many societies were founded, especially in Istanbul, which supposedly sought solutions for salvation. The British Enthusiasts Society, Wilson's Principles Society, Turkish-French Enthusiasts Society, and the Society of Akvam Negotiation are the main ones. The means of salvation were different. Some wanted the protection of the British, some wanted the protection of the French, some proposed the American mandate. Some people also thought of keeping the Ottoman Empire alive symbolically in a small region where sovereignty could be granted to the sultan and the caliph.
What could be the serious and real decision in the face of this situation? Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who has a very wide historical culture and knows how to draw conclusions from history, was not late in sensing the real decision. There was only one decision in the face of this situation; he said, "To establish a new Turkish State based on national sovereignty, unconditionally independent!" 6According to Mustafa Kemal Pasha, the important thing was that the Turkish nation lived as a dignified and honorable nation. No matter how rich and prosperous it was, a nation deprived of independence could not be deemed worthy of higher treatment than being a servant in front of civilized humanity. Accepting his mastery, his lack of human qualities, helplessness and laziness was nothing but a confession. However, the honor and pride of the Turk was very high and great. It would be better for such a nation to perish than to live in captivity. So the motto of the National Struggle was 'independence or death! ' would have." 7
Now it was necessary to cross into Anatolia and unfurl the flag of the National Struggle. It was at this time that he was offered the Ninth Army Continental Inspectorship , in order to drive Mustafa Kemal Pasha away from Istanbul. Mustafa Kemal Pasha accepted this task, which gave him wide powers.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who departed from Istanbul with the Bandırma ferry on 16 May 1919, set foot on Anatolian lands in Samsun on the morning of 19 May 1919. The reason why he was sent to Anatolia consisted of "seeing and examining the disorder in Samsun and its surroundings and taking precautions". Although it was reported in the British reports given to the government that the Turks in this region had engaged in a guerrilla movement against the Greeks and disturbed the security, the real situation was exactly the opposite. Because, with the ceasefire, an extensive Greek activity for the purpose of establishing the Pontus Greek State had started in this region. It was the Turks who were oppressed, not the Greeks. The Mavri Mira Society, which was administered by the Istanbul Greek Patriarchate, raided Turkish villages, committed massacres, and wanted to intimidate the local people through the gangs it established in this region. Against these attempts, patriotic Turks formed counter-gangs and started to struggle with the Greeks of the region. Despite all these facts, the resistance of the Turks in the region was to be prevented in accordance with the instruction given to Mustafa Kemal Pasha. Mustafa Kemal Pasha wanted the title of army inspector and broad powers to accept the task; The Istanbul Government accepted these requests.
The Palace and the Istanbul Government thought that Mustafa Kemal Pasha would carry out this task in the direction they showed. However, Mustafa Kemal's thoughts were completely different. But this proposed mission was an opportunity that should be taken advantage of to cross into Anatolia without arousing suspicion. It would be a conscientious act to use the powers given to him for the interests of the nation until he was taken back. Before Mustafa Kemal Pasha left Istanbul, he met with most of the cabinet members, especially the grand vizier, and finally the Sultan. However, none of these people had seen an energy or a ray of hope that would save his country from the dangerous situation it was in. He felt the heavy oppression of the idea of not offending the Entente Powers in the behavior of the Istanbul Government and the Sultan. But, In order to realize national liberation, it was necessary to oppose the decisions of foreigners, not to obey them. That's why he was going to Anatolia for this purpose. The following words of Mustafa Kemal Pasha to his close friends when he left Istanbul are of great importance in this regard: "There can be no national unity under the enemy's bayonet! Only in free homeland can work be done for the independence of the country and the freedom of the nation. I am going to Anatolia to achieve this goal". Only in free homeland can work be done for the independence of the country and the freedom of the nation. I am going to Anatolia to realize this goal". Only in free homeland can work be done for the independence of the country and the freedom of the nation. I am going to Anatolia to realize this goal".9
As soon as Mustafa Kemal Pasha entered Anatolia, he started to implement his plan. In a telegram he sent from Samsun to Kazım Karabekir in Erzurum on May 21, 1919, he stated this behavior as follows: "I am very sorry for the dangerous state our general situation has taken. It is best to fulfill the last conscientious duty we owe to the nation and the country by working closely together. I accepted this last job with the belief that it would be possible." 10
Mustafa Kemal Pasha, 2 days after he landed in Samsun, sent the following telegram to the General Staff on May 21, 1919, explaining the reasons for the disorder in Samsun and its surroundings, which neither the Istanbul Government nor the representatives of the Entente States liked: "The Greeks are in this region, Pontus. It gathered around the fallacy of forming a government, and the Greek gangs almost turned into a political form." He concluded the report he sent from Samsun to the Grand Vizier on May 22 , 1919 with the following sentence: "The nation united and aimed at the principle of sovereignty and the feeling of Turkishness." 12In this meaningful expression, it is impossible not to sense the determination of the National Struggle in Anatolia. It was after these reports arrived in Istanbul that the representatives of the Entente States asked the Istanbul Government: "What is a well-known Turkish general doing in Anatolia?" Thereupon, the Istanbul Government began attempts to recall the inspector he had sent to Anatolia.
Now that the National Struggle, which started in Anatolia, had found its leader, scattered and regional resistances began to gather under one flag. We see the first example of this in a circular that was announced to the whole country from Amasya on June 22, 1919 with the signature of Mustafa Kemal. A sacred voice was heard in this circular: "The integrity of the homeland, the independence of the nation are in danger. The independence of the nation will be saved by the efforts and decision of the nation." 13 These sentences were the declaration to the whole world with his signature that the National Struggle had actually started. With another article of this circular, it also stated the first way to be followed in the face of the emerging national danger: "A national congress will be held in Sivas, the safest place of Anatolia, with the delegates to be elected from each province, who have gained the trust of the nation."
Mustafa Kemal Pasha, after announcing this circular, which is famous as the Amasya Circular, to the whole country, came to Sivas on 27 June 1919 to go to Erzurum among the joyful demonstrations of the people. During his stay in the city, he moved to Erzurum by giving the necessary directives for the congress to be held in Sivas following the Erzurum Congress.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha arrived in Erzurum on 3 July 1919. He himself says: "My arrival in Erzurum coincided with a time when the whole nation was surrounded by a circle of fire. The whole nation was thinking about how to get out of this circle." 15 When he was greeted enthusiastically by the people of Erzurum in front of Ilıca, the conversation between him and the old Mevlut Ağa, who was found in Çukurova as an immigrant and returned to Erzurum, further reinforced the idea that one must get out of this fire circle in Atatürk. Mustafa Kemal Pasha asked the old but vigorous Mevlut Agha:
-Why did you return from a fertile country like Çukurova? Or did you not make a living?
Mevlut Ağa immediately replied:
-No, Pasha, our livelihood was very comfortable. Recently, I heard that the rapists in Istanbul were going to give our Erzurum to the Armenians. I came so that I can see, whose property are these cowards giving their property to?
These words made Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who came to Erzurum to work for the nation, very emotional and brought tears to his eyes. He turned to those around him and said: "What can't be done with this nation!" said. 16 Mustafa Kemal Pasha resigned from his beloved military profession and duty on 8/9 July 1919, 5 days after his arrival in Erzurum, "to work as an individual mujahid in the Sine-i millet". From now on, he was continuing his historical duty as a nation individual, taking strength and inspiration from the nation.
Following his resignation from military service, Mustafa Kemal Pasha was appointed as the Chairman of the Executive Board of the Erzurum Branch of the Vilâyat-ı Şarkiye Müdafaa-i Hukuk-u Milliye Cemiyeti, at the request of the Erzurum residents. In those days, the said society was in the preparations for a congress covering the eastern provinces in accordance with a decision taken earlier. It was possible for Mustafa Kemal to attend this congress as Chairman of the Executive Board; but he wanted to attend this congress as a member especially from Erzurum. Unfortunately, Erzurum members had been elected before; but a solution has been found. Kazım Yurdalan and Cevat Dursunoğlu, two valuable sons of Erzurum, resigned from Erzurum membership and left their place to Mustafa Kemal Pasha and Rauf Bey. In this way, Mustafa Kemal Pasha's entrance to the congress was ensured as he wanted.
Erzurum Congress convened on 23 July 1919 in an old primary school hall with the participation of 62 delegates. Hodja Raif Efendi, one of the Erzurum delegates, opened the congress as the temporary president, and the presidential election was started after the delegates were read and roll call. Mustafa Kemal Pasha was elected president in the voting. The Erzurum Congress continued for 14 days, working as a constituent assembly, and ended its work by issuing a declaration on 7 August 1919.
The meeting of this congress, which was the flag of the National Struggle, in Erzurum was not a coincidence; After the Armistice of Mudros, Erzurum was one of the regions where defense awareness emerged most sharply. Because, according to the terms of the Armistice, it was desired to establish an Armenia to include the lands of Erzurum, which had been watered with the blood of martyrs for centuries. This situation further sharpened the awareness of national unity and resistance in the region. In addition, there was a Pontus threat in Trabzon, which participated in the Congress with 17 delegates to represent the Eastern Black Sea provinces and districts. The Greeks of the region were in the dream of establishing a Pontus Greek State that would include the Eastern Black Sea cities by taking advantage of the Armistice of Mudros. In this respect, the danger was common with the cities of Eastern Anatolia.
Erzurum Congress convened under difficult conditions. Because, in some provinces, there were great difficulties both in the election of the congress members and in sending the elected ones to the congress. Some of the local chiefs were frightening the delegates with the pressure of the Istanbul Government, preventing them from leaving, and even some provinces were adamantly resisting not sending delegates. Members elected from Elaziz, Diyarbakir and Mardin provinces were prevented from departing due to the pressure of the governorship, so they could not attend the congress. For this reason, in order to convene the congress, it was necessary to make serious attempts by Mustafa Kemal Pasha as well as the efforts of the Erzurum Branch of the Defense of the National Association. While open telegrams are sent to each of the provinces, on the other hand, code telegrams are sent to the governors, Announcements were made to the commanders as necessary. Finally, enough representatives were brought and the congress was convened.
The Erzurum Congress, which was held in the atmosphere created by these conditions, was a congress prepared by the Erzurum Branch of the Vilâyat-ı Şarkiye Müdafaa-i Hukuk-u Milliye Cemiyeti and the Trabzon Conservation Law Society; In the administrative division of that day, 17 delegates from the Eastern Black Sea provinces and districts covered by Trabzon, 25 from the provinces and districts covered by Erzurum, 14 from the provinces and districts covered by Sivas, 4 from Bitlis and 2 from Van, with the participation of a total of 62 members. Considering the current administrative division, the election of members covers nearly 30 Eastern Anatolian and Eastern Black Sea provinces and their districts.
With the meeting of the Erzurum Congress and the start of its work, an intense activity was started by the Palace and the Government in Istanbul to drown out this rising voice of liberation in Anatolia. It was declared by the agencies that Mustafa Kemal was a rebel against the state, and the Erzurum Congress was held illegally. Every precaution was taken to arrest Mustafa Kemal Pasha. Although the Istanbul Government ordered the Erzurum Congress to be dispersed and those who attended the congress to be captured and sent to the Istanbul Court of War, no authority dared to carry out this order in the national atmosphere surrounding the people of the nation.
The Erzurum Congress, which was gathered under such difficult conditions, with a true love of homeland, taking all kinds of risks, became an important turning point in Turkish history. The first foundations of the Turkish War of Independence were laid in this congress, and the historical decisions taken formed the basic rules of the National Struggle. Erzurum Congress decisions can be summarized as follows:
1- The eastern provinces and the sanjak of Trabzon and Canik (Samsun) are a whole that cannot be separated from the Ottoman community for any reason or pretext.
This meant that neither the eastern provinces could be separated from the motherland with the love of Armenia nor the Black Sea provinces with the dream of Pontus. This decision was the first major warning against those who wanted to divide the homeland and nation.
2- The nation will defend and oppose itself as a unit against all kinds of foreign invasion and intervention.
With this article, it was stated that the nation would absolutely reject all kinds of occupation and intervention and would resist in unity. No occupation or intervention against the homeland would go unanswered. The nation was determined to repulse the invasion as a unit.
3- If the Istanbul Government is unable to protect and secure the homeland and independence, a temporary government will be established in Anatolia to achieve the goal.
The state and attitude of the Istanbul Government were clear; He was weak and incompetent. He handed over his hometown to the victorious states with the Armistice of Mudros. Only a government based on national will could save the country from the brink of the abyss; this was bound to happen. The Erzurum Congress was, in a sense, the first step towards this goal.
4- It is essential to make the Kuva-yi Milliye active and the national will dominant.
The national forces aimed from the Kuva-yi Milliye were a national army that would emerge from the heart of the nation. For the sake of the sacred purpose of the nation, this army would certainly triumph in the direction of the nation's desires and inclinations. Making the national will prevail was also a democratic principle. On this basis, it was impossible not to sense the first sparks of the republican regime.
5- Christian minorities cannot be given privileges that disrupt our political sovereignty and social balance.
Minorities in the country had occasionally attempted the cause of political sovereignty. Such acts, which would destroy the integrity of the country and disintegrate the homeland, would not be allowed. Minorities would not be granted economic, legal and cultural privileges and superiorities of any kind, which upset our social balance.
6- Mandate and patronage cannot be accepted.
The Turkish nation took up arms for its independence, risking everything. He did not expect grace or help from anyone; He did not want mercy from foreign states. Independence would come at any cost. The motto is "Liberty or death!" was. 7- Efforts will be made to convene the National Assembly immediately and to conduct government affairs under the control of the assembly.
The National Assembly, which was closed by the pressure of the Allied Powers and the sultan's edict, should convene immediately, and any decision of the government regarding the destiny of the nation and the country should be subject to the control of the National Assembly. Government decisions would be valid only in this way.
8- Our nation celebrates humanitarian and contemporary goals; appreciates our technological, industrial and economic situation and needs.
With this sentence, the innovative spirit of the Turkish nation was expressed. It was meant to say that the Turkish nation is a nation that knows and understands the value of human and civilized goals. As a matter of fact, when Atatürk started great revolutions that changed the face of the nation: "The aim of the revolutions we have made and are making is to make our nation a civilized society in all respects. This is the basic principle of our revolutions." He would say 17 . The expression "Our nation appreciates our technological, industrial and economic situation and our needs" in the resolution clearly pointed to the development breakthroughs that will be made in the future to make a devastated country prosperous.
9- The organization, which was formed by the union of societies born from the national conscience for the same purpose and the sufferings faced by the homeland, was named "Oriental Anatolian Defense of Rights Society".
With this article, national societies operating both in Trabzon and in the Eastern region were united under the same roof, under the name of "Eastern Anatolian Defense of Law Society".
10- A Delegation of Representatives was established by the Congress.
With this article, a committee with the title of "Delegation of Representatives" was formed to carry out the congress decisions and to represent the Erzurum Congress in the works to be done at the end of the congress.
With these historical decisions, the Erzurum Congress ceased to be a regional congress and greatly affected all the events that would develop after it. Because the decisions of the Sivas Congress were based on the decisions of the Erzurum Congress. The decision of the Erzurum Congress took place in the basis of the Misak-ı Milli. The reason for the meeting of the Turkish Grand National Assembly was based on the decisions of the Erzurum Congress. The independence-defending spirit of the Mudanya and Lausanne Treaties was inspired by the decisions of the Erzurum Congress. The spirit of the republican regime was gathered on the basis of making the national will dominant. And finally, the first sparks of Atatürk's revolutions shone in the Erzurum Congress with the sentence "Our nation celebrates humanitarian and contemporary goals". Mustafa Kemal Pasha, in his closing speech for the Erzurum Congress, which is of such importance in terms of its results, "History,
The Erzurum Congress ended its work on August 7, 1919, by electing a 9-member Representative Committee, which would use all the powers on its behalf. Now, a great task awaited the Representative Committee and its chairman; Not to extinguish the spark that shines in the Erzurum Congress, to make it a torch in Sivas and to ensure that national liberation is marched with more confident steps! For this reason, it was Mustafa Kemal Pasha's success to expand the National Struggle on the country's surface by connecting the Erzurum Congress, which was convened for the destiny of the eastern provinces, to the Sivas Congress, which concerns the whole of the country.
During the preparation days for the Sivas Congress, the heavy ceasefire conditions in the country continued with all their bitterness. The unjust and ruthless implementation of the Mondros Armistice Agreement against our nation, the advance of the Greeks who had landed in Izmir into Anatolia with the courage they received from the Entente Powers, and the occupation of our various cities followed each other during the days of the Sivas Congress. In such an atmosphere, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, together with some members of the Representative Committee, came to Sivas from Erzurum on September 2, 1919 to attend the Sivas Congress. Sivas welcomed the leader of the National Struggle with unparalleled displays of love and enthusiasm.
The Sivas Congress convened on September 4, 1919, in the hall of a large building that was used as a high school at that time, with the participation of 38 delegates. In the voting held in the first session, Mustafa Kemal Pasha was elected president. The Congress continued for 8 days and ended its work by issuing a declaration following the Election of the Representative Committee on September 11, 1919.
The gathering of such an important congress in Sivas, which represented the whole country after the Erzurum Congress, was especially related to the strategic situation of the city. Our city, located in the middle of Anatolia, was not under occupation, although there were some officers representing the Allied Powers in accordance with the terms of the ceasefire. Sivas was a crossroads where Anatolian roads converged in terms of transportation: it could be connected to various Anatolian cities in one way or another, to the extent that the possibilities of that day allowed. In addition to all these advantages, the Sivas Branch of the Defense of Rights Society was quite well organized in the city.
The Sivas Congress, which took place under the harsh conditions of the country, is a national congress convened directly upon the call of Mustafa Kemal. Of the 38 members of the Congress, 32 were members from the Western and Central Anatolian provinces, and 6 were members of the Representative Committee. Thus, the Representative Committee, which came to represent the Eastern provinces with the delegates selected from the Western and Central Anatolian provinces, gave the Sivas Congress a nationwide breadth and integrity.
As a historical fact, it should be noted that during the meeting of the Sivas Congress, as in the Erzurum Congress, the Istanbul Government and some of its subordinates put up great obstacles. For this reason, delegates from Ankara and some other cities could not be elected by the pressure of the governorship; Delegates selected from some provinces were also prevented from departing due to the same pressure, as a result, they could not attend the congress. The French Gendarmerie Inspector Brüno, who was in Sivas, also pressed for the Sivas Congress not to convene. He met with the Governor Reşit Pasha and stated that if such a congress took place, Sivas would be occupied and the congress would be dissolved. The British also threatened to invade Sivas via Samsun. However, all these intimidations proved fruitless in front of Mustafa Kemal's determination to overcome all difficulties.
The Istanbul Government tried to arrest Mustafa Kemal with all its might during the days of the Sivas Congress, as it did during the Erzurum Congress. With telegrams sent to almost every governor of Anatolia, it was requested that Mustafa Kemal be arrested at all costs and sent to Istanbul. In order to achieve this, new appointments were made to governorships and mutasarrifs. However, none of the rulers had the courage to fulfill the demands of the Istanbul Government in the rising national will and national atmosphere.
An important feature of the Sivas Congress was that the delegates took an oath at the congress that they would not pursue any personal goals other than the liberation of the homeland and the happiness of the nation, and that they would not serve the purposes of any of the existing political parties. Thus, it was clearly stated that the National Struggle was not carried out in the name of any political party, and that it was a movement aimed entirely at saving the nation and country. The decisions of the Sivas Congress can be summarized as follows:
1- The parts of the homeland within the national borders are a whole; inseparable from each other.
The Erzurum Congress, which had been convened before, declared that the Eastern Anatolia and the Eastern Black Sea provinces could not be separated from the motherland for any reason or pretext. The Sivas Congress, with its full authority, expanded this decision to cover the whole country.
2- The nation will defend and oppose itself as a unit against all kinds of invasion and intervention.
The main danger that called the Erzurum Congress to convene was the danger of Armenia, which would include the Pontus Greek State, which was planned to be established in the Eastern Black Sea Region, and the Eastern Anatolian provinces. Considering the Greek danger coming from the west, the Sivas Congress openly declared to the whole world that no invasion or intervention against the homeland would go unanswered.
3- If the Istanbul Government has to leave any part of our country in the face of external pressure, all kinds of measures and decisions have been taken to ensure the independence and integrity of the homeland.
With this article, it was clearly stated that the people would not be indifferent to any decision or behavior of the Istanbul Government against the interests of the nation, and that a government based on the national will would be established immediately when necessary.
4- It is essential to make the Kuva-yi Milliye active and the national will dominant.
This principle, which was determined at the Erzurum Congress, was reinforced at the Sivas Congress. The only force that could save the country was the national army. This army would fight in the direction of the will and inclinations of the nation, and independence would definitely come true. The nation had now taken its sovereignty into its own hands; He knew no power other than his own will. This basis was the basis of the future republican regime.
5- Christian minorities will not be given privileges that disrupt our political sovereignty and social balance.
This article, which was also included in the decisions of the Erzurum Congress, was reinforced by the Sivas Congress.
6- Mandate and patronage cannot be accepted.
This principle, which was decided at the Erzurum Congress, was also approved by the Sivas Congress and became the basic rule of the National Struggle. The motto of the national liberation movement is "Either independence or death!" was.
7- It is obligatory for the National Assembly to convene immediately to represent the national will.
This request, which was also stated in the decisions of the Erzurum Congress, was shown as a definite necessity. Otherwise, government decisions would not reflect the national will.
8- Our nation celebrates humanitarian and civilized goals, appreciates our technological, industrial and economic situation and our needs.
With this article, which is also included in the decisions of the Erzurum Congress, it is stated that our nation stands by its humanitarian and civilized aims; It was meant to convey that we know our technological, industrial and economic situation and our needs and that we will turn to development initiatives for this purpose in the future.
9- For the same purpose, the societies born from the national conscience were united under the name of "Anatolian and Rumelian Defense of Rights Association". The Erzurum Congress gathered the national societies in the Eastern Anatolia and Eastern Black Sea Regions in a center called the "Oriental Anatolia Defense Society". The Sivas Congress brought this organization -including all the Anatolian and Rumelian national societies-integrated throughout the country.
10- A Delegation of Representatives was elected by the Congress for its holy purpose and the administration of its public organization. The Erzurum Congress elected a 9-member Representative Committee to represent the Eastern provinces. The "Delegation of Representatives" was expanded by electing 6 more people by the Sivas Congress, thus a committee that had a sole say in the destiny of the country was formed until the Turkish Grand National Assembly was opened.
Sivas Congress is a congress of great importance in our Revolution History, as it expands the decisions of the Erzurum Congress and gives these decisions a quality that covers the whole country. It is a national congress that marked the fate of Turkey at the beginning of the National Struggle, and declared to the world that the whole nation was united as one body, since it included almost all the provinces of its members.
After the Sivas Congress, the aim of Mustafa Kemal Pasha was to gather a parliament consisting of national representatives in Anatolia as soon as possible and to administer the National Struggle from a center with the government to be established by this assembly. After the Sivas Congress, he worked faithfully, overcoming all obstacles, on the way to the expansion and strengthening of the national organization, as the Head of the Representative Committee, in order to realize this great work. In this period, the Istanbul Government, seeking to establish contact and agreement with Mustafa Kemal and the Representative Committee, sent the Navy Minister Salih Pasha, met with him in Amasya between 20-22 October 1919 and was convinced to convene a National Assembly. This meeting is known as the "Amasya Meeting" in our History of Revolution. Mustafa Kemal, Parliament's Anatolian The Assembly convened in Istanbul on January 12, 1920. However, it could not operate continuously due to the pressure of the British; meanwhile, he accepted and declared the principles of the Erzurum and Sivas Congresses as "Misak-ı Milli" on 17 February 1920.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha came to Ankara with some of his friends and members of the Representative Committee on 27 December 1919. Now the National Struggle is led from Ankara; Many patriots, soldiers and civilians in Istanbul, were coming to Ankara to take part in the War of Independence. After a while, on March 16, 1920, Istanbul was actually occupied by the Allies; completely under military control. On the night of the same day, British soldiers came to the Parliament and arrested some deputies. Under these conditions, the Assembly, which was opened on January 12, 1920, realized that it would not be able to operate and decided to suspend its work.
Upon the occupation of Istanbul, Mustafa Kemal instructed the governorships and corps commands on March 19, 1920, to urgently elect new representatives to a parliament with extraordinary authority to convene in Ankara. The elections ended quickly and on April 23, 1920, the Turkish Grand National Assembly was opened in Ankara with the representatives of the nation from all parts of the country. Mustafa Kemal was elected president of this assembly and its government, which represents the will and sovereignty of the nation, and became the military, political and social leader of the Turkish independence struggle in all respects. The conditions of the country and the task placed on his shoulders were really heavy; because he was leading the life-and-death struggle of a nation that wanted to be erased from history, the struggle for independence.
Upon the opening of the National Assembly in Ankara and the establishment of a national government, the Sultan and the Istanbul Government also deviated to undermine the National Struggle on a larger scale. The armies of caliphs and sultans are sent to Anatolia to disperse the national forces, which are tried to be created with a thousand and one sacrifices; He found that the heroes of the National Struggle, especially Mustafa Kemal, were considered rebels and sentenced to death. In some parts of Anatolia, internal revolts led by deceived people like Anzavur, Çopur Musa, Postacı Nâzım and Delibaş Mehmet were continuing. On the other hand, the Greeks who landed in Izmir were preparing to attack towards the interior of Anatolia. With the Armistice of Mudros, the organized army was officially disbanded and its arms were taken,
Despite all these internal and external difficulties and difficult conditions, the Turkish Grand National Assembly Government started to gain great success in various fronts against the enemy forces by mastering the situation in a short time. On the Eastern Front, our forces under the command of the 15th Corps Commander Kazım Karabekir attacked the Armenians who had occupied Oltu, Sarıkamış and Kars on September 28, 1920, and defeated the army of the Armenian Republic, whose headquarters was in Yerevan, and on September 29, 1920, Sarıkamış. Kars was recaptured on 30 October 1920. Upon the Armenians' request for peace, the Gyumri Treaty was signed on 2/3 December 1920 and the war on this front was ended. Ardahan and Artvin, which they occupied, were evacuated to Georgia.
Fierce clashes were taking place between French troops and local forces in Adana, Urfa, Antep and Maraş regions of the Southern Front. As a result, the French had to withdraw from Maraş on February 12, 1920, and from Urfa on April 11, 1920. The "Ankara Agreement" signed with the French on October 20, 1921 led to the liberation of Adana, Mersin, Antep and some of our other cities. On the Western Front, the Greeks, taking advantage of the difficult conditions of the Ankara Government, went on a general attack on 22 June 1920. They occupied me. At this time, the Sultan and the Istanbul Government started the National Struggle by signing the Treaty of Sèvres with the Allied Powers on August 10, 1920.
Upon the advance of the Greeks on the Western Front and the occupation of many of our regions due to insufficient force, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, the President of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, met with the front commanders and informed the authorities that a regular army should be established instead of the local volunteer forces. Because the events showed that the success of the National Struggle depended on the gathering of all scattered forces under a single authority; this required the formation of national detachments, militia forces and voluntary organizations into regular continents within the army. Now the scattered war in gangs would be ended, and all national detachments and volunteer forces would be subjected to disciplined training within the army.
Upon this decision, the President of the Turkish Grand National Assembly Mustafa Kemal Pasha, the Minister of National Defense Fevzi Çakmak Pasha, the Chief of the General Staff and also the Commander of the Western Front Colonel İsmet Bey devoted all their efforts to the realization of the regular army. This period is really the most depressed and the most difficult months of our National Struggle history.
We are now at the end of December 1920. Many national detachments and voluntary organizations are rapidly gathering in the national army. However, Circassian Ethem and his brothers, who had a large force in their hands, did not want to be tied to the Western Front forces and chose to follow a policy of their own accord. They were spoiled by some of the works they accomplished during the difficult times of the National Struggle, dismissing civil servants as they wished in the regions they were in, changing them and making appointments according to themselves. As the Western Front is organized as regular forces under a single command, the uneasiness of Çerkez Ethem and his brothers increases; In addition to opposing the Western Front Command, they did not hesitate to speak out against the Ankara Government and even the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Now their attitudes
The situation was really kind. This problem had to be resolved definitively in terms of ensuring unity of command and command in the regular army, which was established with a lot of effort and devotion. As long as the forces loyal to Ethem remained in the army, no victory could be won, on the contrary, these rebel forces would hinder the army in every success. Therefore, the Government decided to eliminate the Circassian Ethem forces. On December 29, 1920, the Commander of the Western Front Colonel İsmet Bey and the Commander of the Southern Front Colonel Refet Bey took forward action to eliminate Circassian Ethem and his forces. Circassian Ethem forces in the Kütahya regions withdrew to Gediz after the Western Front forces occupied Kütahya. National forces, following the rebels, on January 5, 1921, in Gediz.
Now, the most dramatic moments of the National Struggle are being experienced. In order to suppress the Circassian Ethem rebellion, the Western Front forces moved far away from their old battle positions and came as far as Gediz. Having heard that the Western Front forces were moving away from their positions due to the pursuit of Çerkez Ethem, the Greeks took this difficult and difficult moment of the Ankara Government as a great opportunity for them, and on January 6, 1921, they quickly marched forward from both the Bursa and Uşak Fronts. Their aim was to abruptly suppress and defeat the Turkish forces in their weakening positions, and then, by capturing Eskişehir and Afyon, to open the way to Ankara for them. If this plan was carried out, it would have supposedly been possible to strangle the eight-month-old Ankara Government in its birthplace, and to easily eliminate it.
Eskişehir and Afyon, which the Greeks chose as the target of attack, were militarily important crossroads. The abandonment of these cities meant that important railways fell into the hands of the enemy. Especially if the enemy branches advancing from the Bursa and Uşak Fronts had the opportunity to unite in front of Kütahya, they could have hit our forces left behind against Çerkez Ethem from behind. This was the terrible result that would emerge in the event of our defeat.
Upon this critical situation that developed with the attack of the Greeks, the Commanders of the Western and Southern Fronts evaluated the situation and decided to stop the pursuit of Circassian Ethem and to send most of our forces, which had come to Kütahya and Gediz, to İnönü positions without delay. However, there was a 3-day road between the Gediz and Kütahya regions, where the Western Front forces are now located, and the İnönü positions. If the Greeks could reach the İnönü positions before us, they would have advanced to Eskişehir without encountering any resistance. In that case, the task for us would be to catch up with the İnönü positions at full speed and stop the enemy, who was advancing here. For this purpose, some forces were left in the Kütahya region against Çerkez Ethem and his brothers, and the remaining forces were moved to İnönü positions. The 4th Division, which was newly established in Ankara, was also called to the Western Front in order to strengthen the İnönü positions against almost three times the enemy force. Our forces, departing from Kütahya and Gediz, arrived at İnönü positions on the morning of January 9, 1921.
On the other hand, the Greeks advanced rapidly and occupied Çivril and Pazarcık on 8 January 1921, and Bilecik and Bozüyük on the morning of 9 January. However, the beliefs of the leaders of the National Struggle, especially Mustafa Kemal Pasha, were never shaken, that the result would end in victory despite all these invasions, difficult conditions and the necessity of fighting two separate enemies. Mustafa Kemal Pasha was saying the following from the chair of the Turkish Grand National Assembly on 8 January 1921: "Gentlemen! Whether our enemies at home or abroad are many or few, regardless of the extent of their activities, the final success will remain with those who follow a just cause."18 I The Battle of İnönü started on the afternoon of January 9, 1921, with the fierce attack of the Greeks from the direction of Bozüyük. The İnönü positions, named after a small village, are now part of the Turkish War of Independence.
On the first day of the war, fierce battles took place between the forces of the Western Front and the Greeks. The Turkish soldier is fighting with his life; Every attack of the Greeks was repelled by a counterattack, and they were not allowed to advance. Apparently, the enemy had not found what he had hoped for. Instead of empty fronts in İnönü positions, the fact that the Turkish forces encountered infantry and artillery fire really surprised them. The war continued with all its violence from morning to evening on January 10. This morning, the Commander of the Western Front, Colonel İsmet Bey, came to the battlefield from Gediz and began to lead the war under fire. At one time, the Greek force, as much as a regiment, took advantage of a gap in our positions and managed to penetrate to the north of İnönü station, where the Western Front Headquarters is located. In the face of this critical situation,
Even today, our soldiers are facing the continuous attacks of the enemy without a moment's regression; They did not allow the Greeks to advance. Undoubtedly, our army suffers heavy losses in the face of these attacks; but he did not hesitate to defend the holy homeland, which he cherished with his life, at all costs. After two days of fierce fighting, it became the enemy whose strength was broken; He realized that he could not and could not achieve any success from his attacks. Now there was something for them to do: retreat! In fact, the Greek forces began to retreat in the direction of Bursa as of the morning of January 11, with the decision they made on the night of January 10, 1921.
Upon the good news of this victory, the President of the Grand National Assembly, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, sent the following telegram to Colonel İsmet Bey, Commander of the Western Front, on January 11, 1921: "He wishes from Allah that this success will be a good start to the final victory that will completely save our holy lands from the invasion of the enemy. "I congratulate all the officers and men of the Western Front on this victory." 19The İnönü Victory was indeed an auspicious start to the decisive victory; because this victory later II. Greater victories such as İnönü, Sakarya, August 26 and August 30 would follow. Now it was time to follow the Circassian Ethem forces from the place they had left. These rebel forces were also completely eliminated by moving forward quickly. Çerkez Ethem and his brothers took refuge with the Greeks as a last resort. With the suppression of this revolt, the unity of command and command in the national army was also fully ensured.
The First İnönü Victory had a great impact inside and outside; led to major political developments. After this victory, the hopelessness was drowned, the newly established state began to sit on unshakable foundations, and on January 20, 1921, our first Constitution was accepted in the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Again, with this victory, security and trust in the country were ensured, and the efforts to establish a regular army accelerated.
The external effects of the First İnönü Victory were also important. With this victory, the regular army was giving its first test against the enemy, demonstrating its invincible will. This victory showed foreign states that the national government was now a significant asset. Because of these developments, the Allies invited the Ankara Government together with the Istanbul Government to the London Conference convened on February 21, 1921. However, the real owner of the victory was the Ankara Government. For this reason, Ankara delegates were not included in the Ottoman delegation and formed a separate team to defend the national cause. So much so that the Ottoman chief delegate, Grand Vizier Tevfik Pasha, had to leave the right to speak at the conference to the representatives of the Ankara Government. As a result of these developments, the Allies had to prepare a new peace proposal. Again I. İnönü Victory The "Moscow Treaty" was signed with Soviet Russia on March 16, 1921, thanks to the foreign prestige that Turkey brought to the national government. In London, there were some negotiations on the way of peace with France and Italy.
However, the Greeks did not learn from this defeat and after a short while, on March 23, 1921, they went forward again from the same fronts. The Second World War, which started with the attack of the Greeks on the İnönü positions on March 27, 1921. In the Battle of İnönü, the enemy attacks were stopped, as in the first. On March 31, 1921, when the Western Front forces counterattacked, the Greeks began to retreat; On April 1, 1921, they had to leave the battlefield, which they had filled with thousands of dead, to our arms again. As a result, World War II against the Greeks on the Western Front. Another great success was achieved on behalf of the İnönü Victory. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, in the congratulatory telegram he sent to the Western Front Commander İsmet Pasha, said: "You defeated not only the enemy, but also the bad luck of the nation!"20.
We are now at the beginning of July 1921. In order to realize the Treaty of Sèvres, which the Ankara Government rejected, the Greeks are preparing for a new attack against the Turks by constantly deploying forces to the Anatolian lands. Finally, this general enemy offensive began on July 10, 1921, with reinforced forces along the entire Western Front. As the operation progressed, there were occasional violent clashes between the Greek forces and the Turkish forces. However, the Greeks, who were outnumbered by the Turkish forces in terms of manpower and equipment, occupied many places; Afyon, Eskisehir, Kütahya, Bilecik successively fell into the hands of the enemy.
Upon these alarming news from the front, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, President of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, arrived at the Western Front Headquarters in Karacahisar from Ankara on 18 July 1921. In the face of the Greek advance that developed with the supported forces, a new strategy was needed to prevent further losses for the Turkish army, which had limited opportunities under the conditions of that day, and gave the following directive to Front Commander İsmet Pasha: "After gathering the army in the north and south of Eskişehir, It is necessary to keep a distance from the enemy army so that it will be possible to compile and strengthen the army. For this, it is appropriate to withdraw to the east of Sakarya!" 21After this decision, the Turkish army on the Western Front marched back and withdrew completely to the east of the Sakarya River on 25 July 1921. This decision was the right one in terms of war management; because our lost and dwindling forces resisting for a long time against the Greek attacks, which received unceasing support, without withdrawing from the positions they were holding, would have been the cause of greater losses.
In these battles, which were named "Kütahya-Eskişehir Wars" in our Revolutionary History and resulted in our retreat to the east of Sakarya, our army suffered heavy losses against the Greek forces, which were twice as many as itself, and 40,000 were killed, wounded and lost during both the battles and the retreat. Our armed forces close to . In addition, our loss of tools and equipment was great.
In the days of our army's withdrawal to the east of the Sakarya River, the Council of Ministers decided to transfer the Government Center from Ankara to Kayseri as a precaution against a new Greek attack that might develop again; but it had to be approved by the Parliament. The government decision was announced in the secret session of the Grand National Assembly. The council reared: "Have we come here to flee or to fight the enemy!" The representatives of the nation did not agree to surrender Ankara without a fight; The goal was to fight to the last hill. After the enthusiastic speeches, the Assembly did not accept the transfer to Kayseri; on the contrary, it decided to defend Ankara and to make the necessary preparations for it.
Despite all these difficult conditions and the withdrawal to the east of Sakarya, the belief of the leaders of the National Struggle, especially Mustafa Kemal Pasha, that a decisive blow would be dealt to the enemy in the end, was never shaken. According to Mustafa Kemal Pasha: "In the not-too-distant future, the Greek army in front of us would be exhausted, and eventually it would be possible to destroy it." 22 However, the most important condition for success was that everyone believed in this result wholeheartedly and directed all their material and spiritual strength to the defense of the country for this purpose. In addition, the point that should not be forgotten is that our army would enter the war exactly where we wanted, not where the enemy wanted, and would strike him a decisive blow there. In this respect, retreating when necessary, leaving some places to the enemy did not have a great importance. The necessity of military service
Unfortunately, despite this belief of the leaders, the moral disorder caused by the retreat to the east of Sakarya was reflected in the Parliament. This heavy loss that occurred while a new army was being formed, this withdrawal inevitably caused tremors; Some circles were justifiably filled with worry and uneasiness. In this atmosphere, on August 4, 1921, in the secret session of the Grand National Assembly, there were exciting discussions on the military situation and the creation of the Commander-in-Chief. The deputies are looking for a last resort that will revive the tired army and save the country from this disaster. This remedy is Mustafa Kemal's de facto head of the army. Because he is an undefeated, defeated commander in all the wars he participated in. For this reason, the conversations were united in the view that he should take over the Commander-in-Chief. Like his supporters, his opponents too, They want him to lead the army. The majority of the Assembly and its supporters are of the opinion that this is the only solution for salvation, that there is no other way out. Some deputies sincerely exclaim: "You are an important commander! You are a great soldier and you proved this in the Battle of Çanakkale. What day are you hiding yourself now? The enemy has come all the way to Sakarya, what day are you hiding yourself?"23 These cries were really the voice of the national will and were inviting the great hero to the head of the army.
As for the opponents, they also aimed to put all the responsibility that would develop in an environment where they accepted that there was no hope of salvation by giving the Commander-in-Chief to Mustafa Kemal Pasha, on his shoulders.
These negotiations, which started on 4 August 1921 in the Assembly, continued the next day with the same enthusiasm. Mustafa Kemal Pasha was left out of the discussions at first. However, in the face of the insistence of the national will, who did not want to see him as the Commander-in-Chief, in case his failure to speak, not revealing his attitude clearly, might be interpreted as his hopelessness for the future, he submitted the following motion to the Presidency of the Assembly: I accept this duty on the condition that I actually use the powers of the Turkish Grand National Assembly in order to obtain the benefits arising from taking it upon myself as soon as possible, to increase the material and moral strength of the army as soon as possible and to strengthen its administration once more. .24
This proposal caused some objections due to the Parliament's desire to use its powers. However, the current situation was an extraordinary one, such as a life-and-death struggle. In these circumstances, the task accepted by Mustafa Kemal Pasha was really big and important, in other words, it was about the destiny of the Turkish nation. It was only possible to make the fastest and most accurate decisions without wasting time on the front against the enemy, only by using the powers of the Assembly immediately. In his motion, Mustafa Kemal Pasha showed his unwavering respect for the national will by demanding that the parliamentary authority to be given to him be limited to 3 months. Finally, the Assembly saw him right in this request. As a result of the negotiations, on August 5, 1921, "Mustafa Kemal Pasha was sent to the Parliament for 3 months on matters pertaining to military service. The law granting the Commander-in-Chief on the condition of using the powers of the Turkish Grand National Assembly was unanimously accepted in the Grand National Assembly. The law included the following words: He appointed Pasha. The Commander-in-Chief is authorized to actually use the authority of the Turkish Grand National Assembly on behalf of the Assembly in order to increase the material and moral strength of the army and to strengthen its administration once again. This title and authority is limited to three months. If the Assembly deems necessary, it may revoke this title and authority before the expiry of this period. The Grand National Assembly of Turkey, which is the only supreme power that directly seizes the destiny of the nation and the country, appointed its own president, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, to the de facto duty of Commander-in-Chief. The Commander-in-Chief is authorized to actually use the authority of the Turkish Grand National Assembly on behalf of the Assembly in order to increase the material and moral strength of the army and to strengthen its administration once again. This title and authority is limited to three months. If the Assembly deems necessary, it may revoke this title and authority before the expiry of this period. The Grand National Assembly of Turkey, which is the only supreme power that directly seizes the destiny of the nation and the country, appointed its own president, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, to the de facto duty of Commander-in-Chief. The Commander-in-Chief is authorized to actually use the authority of the Turkish Grand National Assembly on behalf of the Assembly in order to increase the material and moral strength of the army and to strengthen its administration once again. This title and authority is limited to three months. If the Assembly deems necessary, it may revoke this title and authority before the expiry of this period. It is authorized to actually use the authority of the Council on behalf of the Assembly. This title and authority is limited to three months. If the Assembly deems necessary, it may revoke this title and authority before the expiry of this period. It is authorized to actually use the authority of the Council on behalf of the Assembly. This title and authority is limited to three months. If the Assembly deems necessary, it may revoke this title and authority before the expiry of this period.25
Mustafa Kemal Pasha came to the rostrum of the Assembly after he was given the Commander-in-Chief by law. Expressing once again his unwavering belief that the country will be saved from the invasion of the enemy, he gave the following assurance to the Assembly: "Sirs! My belief and confidence that we will surely defeat the enemies who want to enslave our poor nation, with the help of Allah, has not been shaken for a minute. This is certain at this moment. I declare my faith to your high delegation, to the whole nation, and to the whole world."26 On the same day, the Commander-in-Chief issued a declaration to the army and the nation. In this declaration, the following sentences were included: "... The Assembly that gave me this task and the definite will of the nation that appeared in this Assembly will form the focus of my course of action. This definite will, which cannot be changed for any reason or way,27
The Commander-in-Chief has now made his plan and has started to implement it definitively. The aim is to take all the measures that will lead to success as soon as possible. Within this framework, 10 "Tekalif-i Milliye (National Tax) orders were issued with the signature of the commander-in-chief on 7 and 8 August 1921. In accordance with these orders, a "National Tax Commission" was established in each district. Forty percent of the stocks in the hands of the merchant were confiscated, to be paid after the victory, for the army's equipment needs. Everyone would give forty percent of their stocks in grain, livestock and fodder to the army, again to be paid for later. all suitable weapons and ammunition would be delivered to the army warehouse within 3 days. A list of carpenters and industrial workshops would be made and the names of their owners would be determined. Thus the whole country was invited to an extraordinary preparation for the future victory; The nation and the army were preparing for a great war hand in hand. After publishing the National Tax orders, the Commander-in-Chief came from Ankara to the Front Headquarters in Polatlı on 12 August 1921; now Mustafa Kemal Pasha was at the front and actually at the head of the Turkish army.
On August 13, 1921, the Greek army started to march forward again towards the Turkish positions in Sakarya. On August 15, 1921, the Greek King Constantine sent his armies to "Ankara!" gave his order. The Greeks, advancing without stopping, occupied some of our cities and towns, and finally reached our defensive line in Sakarya.
On August 23, 1921, the Battle of Sakarya started with the attack of the Greek army. The Greek offensive was stopped by our forces in many parts of the front, inflicting heavy losses on the enemy; however, there were times when the reinforced Greek forces captured some of our important positions, approached Polatlı, and the gunfire was heard from Ankara. Although the Turkish positions were split at many points, each point was stubbornly defended, a new line of defense was created behind each lost line, thus preventing the Greeks from advancing. Because, on 26 August 1921, the Commander-in-Chief gave the following order to his troops for the war strategy: "There is no defense line, there is a defensive surface. That surface is the whole homeland. Every inch of the land of the homeland cannot be abandoned until it is soaked with the blood of the citizens. That's why, Every small or large unit can be thrown out of its position. But every unit, small or large, forms a front against the enemy at the point where it can first stop and continues the war. The troops who see that the unit next to them has to withdraw cannot be subordinate to him. He has to endure and resist until the end in his position.28
This rule, which was put forward by the Commander-in-Chief Mustafa Kemal Pasha, which was of great importance in terms of war management, was applied exactly in Sakarya and the holy homeland was defended to the end by forming a defensive line behind each lost line without delay. Behind every hill the enemy has overcome, there is "Ankara!" he is battling with his dream; Mustafa Kemal Pasha, on the other hand, was drawing the Greek forces to the holy hearth of the country, where he would strike the final blow. Finally, the enemy's attack power, advance power and strength began to deplete more and more. The Greek troops had strayed far from their main position and had indeed fallen into the sacred hearth of the Turks. Now it was the Turks' turn to attack. With our counter-attack, which started on September 10, 1921, the enemy suffered heavy losses, and as a result of this attack, the Greeks began to retreat to the west. Commander-in-Chief Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who did not leave the front during the whole war, sometimes appeared at the most advanced positions and even entered the line of fire. The fact that the Commander-in-Chief was seen in the forward line, next to the attacking continents and watching the war personally from the firing line, undoubtedly had a great impact on the morale of our officers and soldiers. This great and bloody war, called the "Sakarya Field Battle", continued for 22 days and 22 nights, and finally, on September 13, 1921, the Greeks were completely defeated in the east of the Sakarya River and a great victory was won. Upon this significant and great success, on September 19, 1921, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey granted the Commander-in-Chief Mustafa Kemal Pasha the rank of Marshal and the title of "Gazi" by law. from time to time he appeared in the most advanced positions, even entered the line of fire. The fact that the Commander-in-Chief was seen in the forward line, next to the attacking continents and watching the war personally from the firing line, undoubtedly had a great impact on the morale of our officers and soldiers. This great and bloody war, called the "Sakarya Field Battle", continued for 22 days and 22 nights, and finally, on September 13, 1921, the Greeks were completely defeated in the east of the Sakarya River and a great victory was won. Upon this significant and great success, on September 19, 1921, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey granted the Commander-in-Chief Mustafa Kemal Pasha the rank of Marshal and the title of "Gazi" by law. from time to time he appeared in the most advanced positions, even entered the line of fire. The fact that the Commander-in-Chief was seen in the forward line, next to the attacking continents and watching the war personally from the firing line, undoubtedly had a great impact on the morale of our officers and soldiers. This great and bloody war, called the "Sakarya Field Battle", continued for 22 days and 22 nights, and finally, on September 13, 1921, the Greeks were completely defeated in the east of the Sakarya River and a great victory was won. Upon this significant and great success, on September 19, 1921, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey granted the Commander-in-Chief Mustafa Kemal Pasha the rank of Marshal and the title of "Gazi" by law. Undoubtedly, it had a great impact on the morale of our officers and privates. This great and bloody war, called the "Sakarya Field Battle", continued for 22 days and 22 nights, and finally, on September 13, 1921, the Greeks were completely defeated in the east of the Sakarya River and a great victory was won. Upon this significant and great success, on September 19, 1921, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey granted the Commander-in-Chief Mustafa Kemal Pasha the rank of Marshal and the title of "Gazi" by law. Undoubtedly, it had a great impact on the morale of our officers and privates. This great and bloody war, called the "Sakarya Field Battle", continued for 22 days and 22 nights, and finally, on September 13, 1921, the Greeks were completely defeated in the east of the Sakarya River and a great victory was won. Upon this significant and great success, on September 19, 1921, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey granted the Commander-in-Chief Mustafa Kemal Pasha the rank of Marshal and the title of "Gazi" by law.
The results of the Sakarya Victory soon showed itself in the political arena. The Treaty of Kars with the Caucasian Republics was signed on October 13, 1921, and the Treaty of Ankara with the French on October 20, 1921.
After the Sakarya Battle, the defeated Greeks retreated to the Afyon-Seyitgazi-Eskişehir line; they remained on the defensive by fortifying their positions in this region and fortifying important places with wire fences; they had three corps on this broad line.
The expulsion of the Greeks from these last positions, which they held on, made it necessary for the Turkish army to win a decisive battle. Only in this way would it be possible to completely remove the enemy from Anatolia. The Greeks and the British who were their protectors, on the other hand, consider a general attack of the Turkish army impossible, considering the season's advancing, the difficulties of the Turkish government, and the weight of the economic situation in Anatolia; They were calculating that our army would inevitably demand peace after holding on for a while. For this reason, they did not approach peace, they thought that they would gain more profit by gaining time by holding the lands they occupied. 29
The Commander-in-Chief Mustafa Kemal Pasha, on the other hand, follows a realistic path by continuing the preparations for the general attack, apart from these fanciful calculations of the enemy; however, he kept the time and form of the attack extremely secret. Because, according to him, "An attack with half preparation, half measures was worse than no attack at all". Finally, it was decided that the time of attack had come, by using all available means and directing all the material and moral forces of the country towards the same goal. However, the Greeks still maintained their superiority in terms of number of soldiers, tools and equipment.
The Great Attack and the field battle plan that would follow it, prepared to the smallest details by the Commander-in-Chief Mustafa Kemal Pasha, were announced to the army commanders who were called to Akşehir on the night of 27/28 July 1922. Taking their opinions, the Western Front Armies were secretly ordered to "prepare for the attack" on 6 August 1922.
The plan of the Great Offensive was truly ingenious, ingenious as well as daring and dangerous. Because almost all of our forces were shifted to the south of the Afyon-Konya railway, which was considered the center of gravity of the attack, and the issue of allocating forces to other fronts was inevitably considered in the background. As a result, the Eskişehir-Ankara direction was left in an almost open state. Likewise, the back of the region, which was accepted as the center of gravity of the front, was based on the lakes region. In case of failure, the situation of the 1st Army fighting in this region could become critical. 30
This plan could only succeed under the leadership of great commanders, and the factor that neutralized all risks was the decision not to be defeated at all costs. It really did.
On the morning of August 26, 1922, at 5.30 am, the Great Turkish Attack started from Kocatepe with the fire of our artillery. Commander-in-Chief Mustafa Kemal Pasha was also in Kocatepe at this time. The attack developed successfully along the Afyon-Konya railway line in a short time. From the south of this line I. Army, from the north II. The army was on the offensive; however, the center of gravity of the front was concentrated in the I. Army area.
Fevzi (Çakmak) Pasha was the Chief of General Staff of our army, and İsmet Pasha was the Commander of the Western Front in this attack, which was led by the Commander-in-Chief Mustafa Kemal Pasha with his great command skill. Nurettin Pasha to the I. Army, II. The Army was commanded by Yakup Şevki Pasha, and the Cavalry Corps was commanded by Fahrettin (Altay) Pasha. As a result of the rapidly developing attack, many positions of the Greek army were reduced on the night of 26/27 August 1922. Surprised by this sudden attack, the Greeks began to withdraw. Our army entered Afyon, which was under Greek occupation, on 27 August 1922. In the face of this advance of the Turkish army, the Greek army decided to withdraw to Dumlupınar positions. Our forces started to attack Dumlupınar positions on 29 August 1922. On August 30, 1922, the 200th Army in the Dumlupınar region. The Greek army of 000 men was completely surrounded. In today's war, which is called the "Battle of the Commander-in-Chief", most of the enemy was destroyed. The same night, Kütahya was also liberated by our army. However, the retreating routes of the defeated enemy had to be cut off and followed continuously in the direction of İzmir. Commander-in-Chief Mustafa Kemal Pasha said to the forces under his command on September 1, 1922: "Armies! Your first target is the Mediterranean, forward!" gave his order.
Our forces advancing towards İzmir at full speed, captured Uşak on 1 September 1922, Eskişehir on 2 September, Nazilli, Simav, Salihli, Alaşehir and Gördes on 3 September, Balıkesir and Bilecik on 6 September, They liberated Aydın on 7 September and Manisa on 8 September from Greek occupation. Meanwhile, on 2 September 1922, General Trikopis, Commander of the First Greek Army, and II. The Commander of the Greek Army, General Diyenis, and some high-ranking Greek officers were taken prisoner. Turkish troops entered Izmir on the morning of September 9, 1922; As of this morning, the Turkish flag started to wave in Kadifekale. With this great victory, Anatolia was saved from the enemy invasion that lasted for 4 years, "Turkey belongs to the Turks!" The truth has been proven once again.
In the words of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, these great victories won by our nation by mobilizing all material and spiritual power resources, against the terrible and treacherous mentality that wanted to expel the Turkish nation from Anatolian lands and erase it from history, which was started with the Armistice of Mudros and thought to have been realized with the Treaty of Sèvres. It was purposeful: "To establish a new independent Turkish State unconditionally!" Atatürk says: "No victory is the goal. Victory is only the tool needed to achieve a goal greater than itself. The goal is an idea. Victory is only valuable in proportion to its service to the acquisition of an idea. A victory that is not based on the achievement of an idea is life-long. It cannot be. It is a futile effort. After every great field battle, after every great victory, a new world must be born, will be born. Otherwise, victory in itself,31 After the Great Turkish Victory, a new world arose for the Turkish nation; All the roads leading to the establishment of the secular, democratic and modern Turkish State were opened. For this reason, importance was given to political activities in order to collect the successful results of the great military victories. With the Mudanya Armistice Agreement signed with the Allied Powers on October 11, 1922, the arms were laid down; The fighting between the Turkish and Greek forces was ended. Again, according to this agreement, it was accepted that Eastern Thrace, including Edirne, should be evacuated by the Greeks; Istanbul and the straits were left to our administration with some records.
On November 1, 1922, with the decision of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, the Sultanate and the Caliphate were separated from each other and the Sultanate was abolished. That day, Mustafa Kemal Pasha was saying from the rostrum of the Assembly: "The nation took its destiny directly in its hands and represented the national sultanate and sovereignty not in one person, but in a Supreme Assembly composed of deputies elected by all its individuals. That Assembly is your Supreme Assembly; Turkey. It is the Grand National Assembly. The reign and sovereignty of the nation is only and only the Grand National Assembly of Turkey." 32 Upon this historic decision of the Assembly, the last Ottoman Sultan, Vahdettin, fled abroad on a British warship.
Now it was time for peace talks. The Lausanne Peace Conference convened on 20 November 1922. İsmet (İnönü) Pasha represented the Turkish Grand National Assembly Government in these negotiations, which lasted for months and sometimes became very difficult, as in the Mudanya Armistice negotiations. Finally, on July 24, 1923, the treaty was signed. With this treaty, the independence of the new Turkish State was approved by the whole world, our national borders were drawn, the old roughnesses from the Ottoman period in the economic field were cleared and the capitulations were abolished. This result achieved in the field of diploma was really important. Because, in Atatürk's words, this treaty was "a document expressing the destruction of a great assassination that had been prepared against the Turkish nation for centuries and was thought to have been completed with the Treaty of Sèvres". "33
Ankara became the Government Center of the State of Turkey with the decision of the Grand National Assembly on 13 October 1923. The name of the current administration now needed to be clearly stated and announced. Finally, on the evening of October 29, 1923, a republic was proclaimed with a constitutional amendment. Deputies standing this great event "Long live the republic!" celebrated with their voices. Following this result, the presidential election was started. Ankara Deputy Mustafa Kemal Pasha was unanimously elected the first president of the Republic of Turkey.
With the proclamation of the Republic, in addition to this great revolution, the state organization and social administration had to be secularized in accordance with the contemporary understanding of the state. In such an understanding, a republic with a caliphate could not exist. For this reason, on March 3, 1924, the caliphate, which was no longer necessary, on the contrary, had become a harmful institution for the secular and independent republican regime, was also abolished and the Ottoman dynasty was taken abroad with the last caliph.
Major revolutions began to follow each other for the state to take a modern shape and for the nation to reach the level of modern civilization as soon as possible. With the Education Union law, unity in education and training was achieved; A secular and national path was followed. Madrasahs were closed and republican schools that adopted contemporary culture were opened. During this period, the hat and clothing revolution took place. Dervish lodges, zawiyas and shrines, which destroyed all kinds of life energy by leading the people to drowsiness, were closed; Serie and Foundation Ministry has been abolished. The secular state principle was accepted and religious and state affairs were strictly separated. In the field of law, serial courts and Mecelle were abolished and many new laws were adopted together with the Turkish Civil Code. Great importance was attached to scientific and cultural affairs; By establishing the Turkish Historical Society and the Turkish Language Society, important studies were carried out on Turkish history and the Turkish language. The letter revolution, one of Atatürk's greatest works, occurred; Arabic letters were abandoned and the Turkish alphabet based on Latin letters was made. A major reform was carried out in the University as well, giving it a contemporary character; meanwhile, various faculties and chairs were opened as needed. International calendar, time and numbers accepted. By reforming women's law, Turkish women were given the right to vote and be elected. Emphasis was placed on economic movements; commerce and national industry were developed. Agricultural activities were expanded. Health care was given importance. A strong army was formed. All these revolutions, which were the foundation of the new Turkish State, were called "Atatürk Revolutions". The Republican People's Party was established to include all Turkish people in order for the revolutions to settle in the country more quickly and firmly; republicanism, nationalism, populism, statism, secularism and revolutionism were accepted as the principles of Turkish politics.
In the face of this forced course that led the nation to modern civilization, a group that formed the opposition, but one branch of which was based on conservatism and reaction, became uneasy. This group, which also found representatives in the political arena, made an assassination attempt on Atatürk in June 1926, because they held Atatürk responsible for all this, but they could not achieve success and were cursed by the nation for days.
After succeeding most of his revolutions, the Great Leader wrote his Great Discourse about the Turkish Struggle for Independence and the founding of the new Turkey. He read it at the Party Congress in 1927, in a fascinating oratory that continued for six days. This work, which is full of valuable opinions, comments and criticisms, has been among the immortal works of Turkish literature as well as Turkish history.
After the liberation, Mustafa Kemal Pasha traveled throughout the country and told the people about the ideology of the revolutions and the new Turkish State. In 1934, the Assembly gave him the surname "ATATÜRK" with a special law. In his last years, the Great Man worked with an inexhaustible effort and enthusiasm for the integration of Hatay into the homeland. Liver failure, which started in his general health, worsened over time; cirrhosis has developed. Therefore, he spent his last days sick and in bed. He died in Dolmabahçe Palace for five nights at nine o'clock on Thursday, November 10, 1938. His death had wide repercussions all over the world and caused great sadness.
The medicated body of Atatürk was placed on a special catafalk in the Dolmabahçe Palace hall. The sacred coffin, wrapped in the Turkish flag and guarded by his comrades in arms, was left for the visit of the nation for three days; then he was brought to Ankara on 20 November 1938. It was placed on the sarcophagus prepared in the Ethnography Museum with a great ceremony on November 21, 1938. All the states of the world sent special representatives to his funeral; In this ceremony, foreign generals who fought against him in Çanakkale and other wars were particularly noteworthy. On November 10, 1953, the body of the saint was taken from his temporary tomb in the Ethnography Museum and transferred to Anıtkabir with a great ceremony and was buried here.
* The house where Atatürk was born is in Kocakasim Mahallesi, Islahhane Caddesi in Thessaloniki, and today it is within the garden boundaries of the Turkish Consulate and has been turned into a museum.
1 Civil secondary school in the Ottoman State.
2 Military secondary school in the Ottoman Empire.
3 Military high school in the Ottoman Empire.
* A town in Edirne, in Western Thrace, during the Ottoman period (Today it is within the borders of Greece).
4 Ruşen Eşref UNAYDIN, Interview with Anafartalar Commander Mustafa Kemal, 1930, p.31
5 Utkan KOCATÜRK, Atatürk and the History of the Republic of Turkey Chronology, Turkish Historical Society Publication, 2000, p.4
6 Kemal ATATÜRK, Speech I, p.12
7 ATATÜRK, supra, p.13
8 The name of this inspectorate was changed to Third Army Inspectorate on 15 June 1919.
9 Hüsrev GEREDE, 20th Century magazine, volume: 3, issue: 66, p.28, 1953
10 Kemal ATATÜRK, Speech I, p.16; Kazım KARABEKIR, Our War of Independence, Turkey Publishing House 1969, p.32
11 KOCATÜRK, supra, p.43
12 KOCATÜRK, supra, p.44
13 KOCATÜRK, supra, p.59
14 KOCATÜRK, supra, p.59
15 Atatürk's Speeches and Statements II, p. 204
16 Cevat DURSUNOĞLU, Erzurum in the National Struggle, 1946, p. 87-90
17 Utkan KOCATÜRK, Atatürk's Ideas and Thoughts, 2005, p. 204
18 Utkan KOCATÜRK, Atatürk and the History of the Republic of Turkey Chronology, 2000, p.226
19 Utkan KOCATÜRK, Atatürk and the History of the Republic of Turkey Chronology, 2000, pp.227-228
20 Kemal ATATÜRK, Speech II, p.580
21 Kemal ATATÜRK, Speech II, pp.608-609
22 Utkan KOCATÜRK, Atatürk and the History of the Republic of Turkey Chronology, 2000, p.273
23 Utkan KOCATÜRK, A Conversation with Celâl Bayar, Journal of Atatürk Research Center, issue:5, 1986, p.346
24 Kemal ATATÜRK, Speech II, p.611
25 Parliamentary Minutes, Period: I, Volume: XII, p.21
26 Utkan KOCATÜRK, Atatürk and the History of the Republic of Turkey Chronology, 2000, p. 274
27 Atatürk's Circular, Telegram and Declarations, 1964, p.393
28 Kemal ATATÜRK, Speech II, p.618
29 Nusret ÖZSELÇUK, 30 August Victory, Journal of Atatürk Research Center, Issue: 9, 1987, p.668
30 ÖZSELÇUK, age, s. 669
31 Ruşen Eşref UNAYDIN, Missing Atatürk, p. 44
32 Utkan KOCATÜRK, Atatürk and the History of the Republic of Turkey Chronology, 2000, p.361
33 Kemal ATATÜRK, Speech II, p.767
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