Contribution of Atatürk's Evolutionary Philosophy to Tradition-Cultural Dynamism

Contribution of Atatürk's Evolutionary Philosophy to Tradition-Cultural Dynamism
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“We will ensure that the national culture rises at every breakthrough as the main pillar of the Turkish Republic!” Gazi Mustafa Kemal (1932)


It is an undeniable fact that a Tradition-Cultural Statism, which is in complete opposition to the Tradition-Cultural Dynamism, which directs the individual and society in the direction of modernization, continues its effectiveness from time to time. That's why I want to address the subject directly, by addressing the Culture-Duality, which is the result of such a reality, at the very beginning of my article.

It is absolutely necessary to know that all the dualities of our inner world, which drag the "mental" and "spiritual" evolution into a complex impasse, hinder the formation of Tradition-Cultural Renewals, which are of extraordinary importance for the individual and society, and cause such efforts to slow down after all. According to our great thinker Ziya Gökalp (1875-1924), statism [stagnation] in Tradition and Culture means that the normed factors, such as blood or belief formed over time, in the mental and spiritual power of human beings, or in the common combination of these two factors, “are where they sit. It is an effort to strengthen and balance their ability to stay like they are; and with such behaviors, care has been taken to make people and society forget the fact of development from the past to the present and even towards the future, and a great deal of success has been achieved in such a dangerous policy.

Here, the term "dynamism", which is relevant to our subject, that is, the interpretation that can fully prove Atatürk-Dynamism, should have a very different meaning; Atatürk-Dynamism is the image of transforming the evolution effort of man and humanity, the principle of keeping nature in a continuous progress process, into unceasing breakthroughs in the common combination of mind and spirit, and even the pragmatic philosophy of further strengthening such breakthroughs - in the way of helping nature.

Statism, which is completely incompatible with the development effort of the person and society, is the bigotry of being captive to an understanding that absolutely lacks the need to renew and refresh the traditions and cultures that have remained the norm for centuries with their immutable quality.

In order to follow the practical repercussions of the research on Atatürk-Dynamism above, let's now review the main principles of the dynamic moves peculiar to Ata, as soon as the Turkish Republic was established (1923), in order to get rid of the established statism as soon as possible: (1)

As early as 1923, Gazi Mustafa Kemal announced the basic principles of rapid development in science and culture to the Grand National Assembly, and therefore to the Turkish nation, with the following words:

“For a practical and comprehensive education, it is necessary to establish modern libraries, herb gardens and zoos, conservatories, institutes, museums and fine art exhibitions in important centers within the borders of the homeland. The country should be equipped with printing houses.”

Ghazi Mustafa Kemal's longing for the ideal, which will make it possible for our national tradition and culture, especially our music, literature and fine arts to be renewed and refreshed on the way to modernization, turns into a common synthesis with the unique legends of the War of Independence, and is another example of delicacy and elegance; and the Great Leader expressed this very lofty view as follows:

“I leave the exciting details of the Anatolian wars, a legend of great heroism, full of honorable events for the homeland, our grandchildren and future generations, to the language of history.
“But masters! The nation, the nation's spiritual art, music, literature and all fine arts, should always sing the divine tunes of this holy fight with beautiful voices in the enthusiasm of an endless love for the homeland.

The Great Leader Atatürk, on the way to ensure the development of our national culture in accordance with the requirements of the day, even one year before the foundation of the Republic (1922), touched upon this issue of extraordinary importance with all his might and said:

“Sirs! What I have explained so far are measures to develop and elevate the nation's material forces. However, people can continue to work not only materially, but also under the influence of the spiritual forces in these material forces. Nations are like that. Spiritual powers, on the other hand, can develop on the way to exaltation, especially with science and faith. Therefore, the most productive and most important task of the administration is the educational work. In order to achieve success in this business, we have to implement a program that is fully proportionate to and in accordance with the current state of our nation, its social and vital needs, environmental conditions and the requirements of the century… It is possible to reach the level of civilization that he is, naturally, by raising high professionals and glorifying our national culture.”

Atatürk, who said in his speeches at the opening of the Turkish Grand National Assembly in 1923: "We will ensure the rise of national culture in every field, as the pillar of the Republic of Turkey," also expressed the following extraordinary ideal for our national culture in his 10th year speeches on October 29, 1933:

“I should also emphasize that one of the historical characteristics of the Turkish nation, which is a high society, is to love the fine arts and to rise in it. For this reason, it is our national ideal to develop our nation's high character, tireless industriousness, innate intelligence, devotion to science, love for fine arts, and sense of national unity by constantly feeding it with all kinds of tools and measures. This ideal, which is very worthy of the Turkish nation, will make it successful in doing its own civil duty to ensure real peace for all humanity.”

Ata duly put forward the basic principle about polyphonic Turkish art and music, which must be created by evaluating our fine arts and especially contemporary science and technique of international quality, in his opening speeches in 1934 to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, and Ata's extraordinary interpretation revealed the following in our cultural history. replaced by the words:

 “Friends, I know how you want the youth of the nation to be promoted in all the fine arts. This is done. However, Turkish music is the one that needs to be taken the fastest and first. The measure of a nation's new change is its ability to perceive and comprehend the change in music. The music that is attempted to be played today is far from being worthy of bleaching; we should know this clearly. It is necessary to collect high sayings and phrases that express national, subtle feelings and thoughts, and process them the day before, according to the general final music rules. Only at this level can Turkish national music rise and take its place in universal music.”

In these correct views of our Ata, there are principles that indicate what steps should be taken that will make it possible to renew and refresh our national culture, fine arts, and especially polyphonic music, in a way that will comply with the scientific, technical and aesthetic realities of the age in all respects. How is it possible that music, which is completely devoid of these principles and produced under the influence of ordinary inspirations, allows us to take the place we deserve in international cultural encounters, at least on an equal right and level? Moreover, the universality required by the polyphonic contemporary Turkish art-music, It is only possible by using a new technique that can be created with the inspirations to be obtained from the international common technique of contemporary science, and the use of international musical instruments that will help the application of such a technique. As a matter of fact, the fact that polyphonic Turkish art-music, which can only be obtained in this way, can be practiced by the artists of foreign countries with the same taste, understanding and performance makes it possible for such works to be understood internationally with their national characteristics; and this extraordinary result also enables our national music to be universalized on a large scale. But the work does not end there: and there must be enlightened heads who can approach the symbolic expression in works with superior content that can only be obtained in this way, and help the evolutionary effort of music. At this point, is it possible not to remember the famous poet of Iran, Sadi from Shiraz (1184-1291)? They asked Sadi what he thought about the art of music, and he said: “Are you asking me what music is? Show the listener and I will tell you what the music is!” she said!

There is no doubt that the music that made Atatürk uneasy at the very beginning of our entry into the Republican regime, that is, "attempted to be listened to" in his own words, was, unfortunately, the corrupt market music that our large masses of people frequently encounter in their daily lives, as it is today. It is possible to encounter this kind of music not only in our country, but also all over the world. However, in most of those countries, official institutions in charge of broadcasting to the public, in contrast to our practice, include music programs that prevent demoralization caused by bad music, and they praise their performers with lowly music and stay away from unjustified praise with true love of art!

The Great Leader Atatürk knew very well how worthless music would cause a collapse in the morale of our art-loving people; and Ata's sayings above are of such a nature as to reveal our Great Leader's view and understanding of real art.

The ancestor knew very well the superior value in the works of the old masters; and Abdülkadir Meragi (1360-1435), Hafiz Post (1630-1694), Itrî (1640-1712), Tab'î Mustafa (1700-1786), İsmail Dede (1778-1846) and Zekai Dede (1825-1897) was respectful to our composers, who produced works of a power that could not be found in any Islamic land of the age in which they lived. But the music that interested Ata most was Anatolian and Rumelian folk songs. Ata firmly believed that our folk songs and classical music composed in monodic-modal (monodic-modal) style would be the source of inspirations for creating polyphonic contemporary Turkish art-music, which he firmly believed would one day be born. Especially in 1927, it was possible to closely follow Ata's view on this very delicate subject at the teas and meals in the Çankaya mansion and the Marmara mansion.

Listening to some of the works of our ancestors (Cemal Reşit Rey, Ferit Alnar, Ulvi Cemal Erkin, Ahmet Adnan Saygun and Nezil Kazım Akses), who graduated from the major music academies of the West and wrote polyphonic works with the techniques they created inspired by the international common technique of contemporary science. What a joy it is to be able to see, at least partially, that the seeds that he had sown with great faith began to bear fruit.

So far, texts taken from Ata's own speeches, which prove his contribution to the development of Tradition-Cultural Dynamism, have been reviewed from place to place. Below, the principles of the Great Leader's speeches on national-contemporary Turkish art-music, which were explained in the opening speech of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, or on different occasions, are given by converting them into a single summary, which is about the renewal and modernization of Ata's musical art. importance of being the keystone of their convictions. The father briefly says:

“I know how you want the youth of the nation to progress in all the fine arts. This is done. However, in this, it is Turkish music that needs to be taken the most. Music is the joy, spirit, joy and everything of life. The genre of music alone is worth considering. Life is music. Our real music can be heard from the Anatolian people. The measure of a nation's new change is its ability to perceive and comprehend the change in music. It is necessary to collect high sayings and phrases that express national, subtle feelings and thoughts, and to process them according to the general final music rules the day before. However, at this level, Turkish national music can rise and take its place in universal music. This is a revolutionary movement!”

As it can be understood from the careful analysis of the summary above, Atatürk, who describes music as the joy, spirit, joy and everything of life, considers it necessary that the monodic-modal flow in our music should be replaced by a music full of narrative contrasts that will be created by the polyphonic technique; and life itself, that is, musicalization, longing for polyphonic national Turkish art-music, which should be formed by the common combination of mental and spiritual tides. All over the world, especially in our neighbors Balkan countries, modernization in music has always been achieved in this way. It is unthinkable to think of a natural initiative as our Ata's resorting to the precaution of preventing the delay in such progress, with sound and correct principles. Ata's, Such a renewal, which he considers necessary to achieve as soon as possible on the way to reaching polyphony, gives rich and versatile power to works of great form and scale, especially symphonies, concertos, chamber music, all kinds of choirs and operas, and the symbolic humor in the shadow-light contrasts that dominate the narration. On the other hand, it is highly successful in obtaining an effective and colorful interpretation power of polyphonic texture. However, the principle of interpreting the mental and spiritual ups and downs in the language of music, which dominates the expression in such applications, enables the formation of an extraordinary creative order in our country, as it is in the music of societies that have reached an advanced level in all respects; and the polyphony technique, which adds dimensions to the symbolic expression in such creations, almost as if it were visible,

The great scholar of our monophonic classical music, the late Rauf Yekta Bey (1871-1935), also focused on the transformation of our music into polyphony in his article on Turkish music published in the Encyclopédie de la Musique et Dictionnaire du Conservatoire (1922) in France, and made a statement about the transformation of our music into polyphony. He explained that in the experiments he used a unique sequence system that he divided into 12 frets. It is understood from this that a famous music scholar like Rauf Yekta Bey seems to have dealt with the thesis that it is now necessary for our national music to turn into polyphony, even at that time.

It is imperative that Turkish music be developed with a polyphonic system suitable for us, which can only be created by knowing the international common technique of contemporary science very well; and the contemporary narrative humor of works of great form and size to be obtained in this way will enable our monophonic music to achieve a musical superiority that can certainly compensate for the loss of some voices in the 24 unequal quarter-tone sequences; and it is obvious that in this business, not a little but a lot, and a lot of delay. However, our pioneering composers and young generation composers, who have completed their higher education in the country and abroad in the 50 years since the establishment of the Republic, have been producing works that constitute Turkish polyphony with a national-contemporary character, They have duly fulfilled their duty towards Tradition-Cultural Dynamism, and successfully proved that they have advanced in all respects with new and fresh works on the path opened by Atatürk, both at home and abroad. Although the applications made in this way are still developing at the individual level, it is certain that the results obtained through hard work will allow the formation of a scientific system and method in our country, as in the West, in the near future!

Some of the world's greats, who have no professional relationship with the art of music, have been extraordinarily successful in forming sound interpretations and judgments on this very complex subject. For example, Atatürk, a great soldier by profession and a unique statesman, was never mistaken in diagnosing the true value of the music he encountered, and in one of his speeches, as mentioned above, said: "Only the type of music is worth considering!".

Ata, whom we witnessed very well know our national music genres and the music genres of the West in terms of their aesthetic superiority, especially when listening to our folk songs, was extremely emotional and enjoyed joining the audience from afar with his voice reflecting a tenor tone. As early as 1923/24, Ata was right to seize the movements that accurately shaped the question of what kind of music should be created for the growing younger generation; and he firmly believed that the new music that needed to be realized as soon as possible was a polyphonic music that could express contemporary life in all its aspects.

The opinion of the famous Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) is also of great importance in this regard. This famous poet, who had a view completely parallel to Ata's above-mentioned opinion, knew the monophonic music of the country he lived in, loved it very much, and was successful in giving a very accurate meaning to his interpretations while comparing Indian music, which only reflects a lyrical and poetic feeling, with Western music. .

Atatürk's “alone, the type of music is worth considering!” The reality of reviewing Tagore's view of the Far East and the West on musical genres side by side with an understanding of art that is powered by the principle of art clearly reveals the necessity of initiatives that will enable the arts, which have become the norm over time, to reach the level of modernization of international quality. As a matter of fact, Ata says in his opinion on national-contemporary music, which we mentioned above: “Music is the joy, spirit, joy and everything of life. Life is music. The measure of a nation's new change is its ability to perceive and comprehend the change in music. It is necessary to collect high sayings that express national feelings and thoughts, and to process them according to the general final music rules the day before!”.

On the other hand, while comparing Far East and Western music, Tagore says the following about Western music:

“Thus the effect I want to explain is a rich appearance, the appearance of waves rising and falling in unending motion among the endless shadow-light images of the sea of ​​life - Besides all this, there is also the opposite aspect: the appearance of a flat universe, of a calm and azure sky, on distant horizons, the appearance of a state reminiscent of eternity in all its silence. Whatever others may say, even if I cannot fully explain my purpose, what I will say again is this: Whenever I am under the influence of Western music, I always say to myself: This is romantic music, in this art, mortal life itself is music. dead.
“Apart from whether some experiments have been made to describe these features in Indian music, these features are less common in the structure of this music, and in fact, there are no such elements. Our tunes add a sound to the starry nights and the first light of dawn, they speak of a pain that darkens the skies and hides in the dark shadow of the clouds, of the quiet joy of the spring that seeps into the forests in complete ecstasy.”

There is almost no difference between Tagore's interpretation above regarding the musical differences between the two worlds and Atatürk's thoughts on what kind of expression elements a contemporary polyphonic music should contain. Therefore, in such an approach, our Ata is an extraordinary revolutionary who directs the effort to bring our national arts and especially our music to international universality as soon as possible; Rabindranath Tagore, on the other hand, is a soulful music friend who sincerely cares about telling the truth as it is.

Before comparing Atatürk's contribution to Tradition-Cultural Dynamism with the views and opinions of famous figures of contemporary science and philosophy, it is a fact that it would be more accurate to examine our great thinker Ziya Gökalp, who expressed the philosophy of energetic moves unique to Ata. There is no doubt that Ata's principle of renewal in music also proves Ziya Gökalp's principle of “renewal in tradition” on a classical-positivist basis, from an ideal-positivist and even pragmatist point of view.

Ziya Gökalp expressed an interpretation parallel to Ata's principle -as mentioned above- that "change in music will be a measure for the completely new change of a nation" in his unique philosophy of renewal, and in the painful days of our defeat in the First World War and on Gazi Mustafa Kemal's road to salvation in Samsun. About a year before he set foot in (1918), he said:

“The rules (rules), each of which has an independent and absolute existence, stay where they sit and cannot create a future. Tradition means creation and development. Because tradition, like a force that moves a past that has fused various moments with each other, has a current that pushes it forward from behind, constantly giving rise to new developments and trends. Although tradition is a force that gives birth and creates on its own, in foreign innovations instilled in it, it comes alive by taking inspiration from the water of life in its veins and does not rot away like common imitation.

The essence of the concept of “foreign innovations” in Ziya Gökalp's interpretation given above means the contribution of innovations brought by education, which Ata gives importance to above all, to culture and art, and then useful factors of various kinds that can be reflected from outside to inside in international cultural and artistic encounters; The first of the two extraordinary renewals that took place in our art world in this way is the perspective new Turkish painting art, which began to replace the one-dimensional miniature art in the early 19th century, and the second is under the direct or indirect influence of the monophonic classical Turkish music and the folklore music of the country, or completely. It is a polyphonic national Turkish art-music composed with free inspirations.

Now, let's try to determine the points of approach between Atatürk's Tradition-Cultural Dynamism and Ziya Gökalp's philosophy of evolution in tradition and culture, and the worldviews of some famous writers and thinkers of the West, and first of all, let's try to identify the famous historian and art scholar Jacob Burckhardt (1818-1897). let's take it. This German-born Swiss scholar guided his interpretations and judgments under the influence of classical thought brought first by German Romanticism and then by the Italian Renaissance. became better understood over time.

Jacob Burckhardt not only defended a topic quite parallel to Ziya Gökalp, but also succeeded in linking Atatürk's unique philosophy of evolution in contemporary culture to a view that completely proves Atatürk's understanding. For example, Burckhardt clearly revealed the main factors hindering the evolutionary effort of culture in his book "Comments on World History"(3) published in 1905, thus expressing the importance of laicism in culture and art with his unique interpretation, he said:

“Faith becomes tradition over time, no matter how strong its commitment to evolutionary development and change, it loses its power to help culture and becomes captive to tradition. Such a danger reaches enormous proportions, especially in governments that cannot keep religious and state affairs separate; The periods when religion and the state constitute a common power are the periods when culture is in chains.”

When the above comments of Ziya Gökalp and Burckhardt are carefully examined, the fact that the term "tradition" seems to be used in opposite meanings in both causes a situation similar to a contradiction. However, according to Ziya Gökalp, the rule is the equivalent of the “hardened tradition” in Burckhardt's interpretation. Then, according to Burckhardt, it is natural that the traditions that should not be hardened but must meet the tradition specific to Gökalp. When this is so, it is clearly seen that both thinkers of our age are completely united in the interpretation of "traditions that have hardened, remain where they are and cannot create a future", that is, the rules (rules) that have acquired the quality of immutability.

According to Ata, "culture", which the majority usually describes as "knowledge", is a philosophy of "thinking" (contemplation) that aims to maintain its effectiveness at least on an equal basis and level in the international arena, in an effort for endless development, and it is only possible to gain strength from this kind of philosophy. domain is the perception of an intellectual evolution. Here, the final result is achieved not by static, but by breakthroughs fed by a dynamic education and training; and such an effort is a "think-work" system that also enables a nation to reach successive cultural stages; this kind of "think-work" system is also a "philosophy of perception" that sheds light on practical formations in tradition, culture and art, which are compatible with the international common technique of contemporary science.

The famous psychologist Wilhelm Wund (1832-1920), who handles the same feeling from a slightly different angle in interpreting the place of development effort peculiar to Atatürk in contemporary culture, interprets culture as follows: In the path of development, it is possible to know himself first, to dominate himself, to know nature and, at a later stage, to influence nature in the way of being beneficial to humanity.

Philosopher Friedrich Jodl (1849-1914), who adopted a naturalist-monist thought based on positivist-humanism, and therefore a rational understanding, explains his belief in the extraordinary effectiveness of culture: we must train; it is such an effort that it has brought people to the level of a sentient society, from a primitive thought to an unlimited power of thought. The richness of thousands of years of experience has been acquired by culture alone and will be appropriated to our world with culture. We live and mingle within that culture, and when we stay outside of it, we become nothing.”

In this interpretation, Friedlich Jodl points out the fact that a dynamic culture is bringing us to the level of a sentient society, from a primitive imagination to an unlimited power of thought; Thus, Jodl still defends the principle of dynamism in tradition and culture, which lies at the core of Atatürk's thoughts mentioned above, and thus makes it clear that it is imperative to continue to evaluate the renewal effort of human beings in culture with an active power of thought.

According to Ata, the basic principle that will contribute to the “new change of a nation”, that is, the only factor that will ensure the uninterrupted development and maturation of national music not only in technique and form, but also in expressive power, is renewal in accordance with the requirements of the age; in other words, it is polyphony that will shed light on the national-contemporary structure, first of all, in the narrative. As a matter of fact, while Ata expressed his longing for the polyphonic national Turkish art-music obtained in this way, the artistic understanding of the famous philosopher Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), which will always preserve its importance, has turned into a newly purified judgment in terms of ideal-positivist thought. Accordingly, it is certain that examining an interpretation of Ata directed to the art of music together with an interpretation of Hegel on the same subject will certainly bring a more visible perspective to the subject; and Ata says:

“Today's Turkish mind, when thinking about music, is not looking for music that will give people a simple and temporary excitement. When we say music, we mean a music that finds the expression of our high emotions, lives and memories. Today's Turks expect from music the services that other high and sensitive societies expect!”

While explaining the philosophy of art that Hegel created in a way quite parallel to Ata's belief, he emphasized an important understanding as follows:

“Art is the open philosophy of history as well as the interpretation of life. Because art is the harbinger of what makes the human soul tremble most deeply; And it is art that successfully emerges from battles in the path of attaining the truth and expresses a pure and sublime love, or divine being, in pure words!”

While there are warning judgments explained above in the history of culture, a new technique that will be inspired by the common techniques and aesthetics of contemporary science can only be achieved by being conscious of such facts, and the polyphonic Turkish art-music has a place it deserves in national and international cultural encounters. and is it possible to doubt that you can access it with aesthetics?

To what extent will the Great Leader Atatürk be devoted to the fact that the fine arts adapt to the meaning of the age in every aspect, that he especially emphasized the principle that renewal in a national-contemporary music art would be a measure for a nation's renewal effort, and gave the following unique judgment to the history of civilization:

“The measure of a nation's new change is its ability to perceive and comprehend the change in music!”

The Tradition-Cultural Dynamism peculiar to Atatürk, which has been tried to be researched and interpreted so far, both his philosophy and the stages this philosophy has created in directing practical applications, unfortunately, cause some misdiagnoses as a result of inadequacy in culture. That is to say, forward movements, which are actually the products of nature's evolutionary law, are tried to be portrayed as dangerous practices that deny the past and disregard our essential traditions and culture. Such views, which are completely wrong, are the view of not noticing the efforts that are the revolution of returning to essence in modernization within the renewal movement directed by Atatürk! Such a revolution can be achieved not by rejecting the past, but by evaluating the past with a contemporary view, in our country as well as in the countries that have reached the advanced level of culture. It is a revolution that allows us to take the place we deserve in the "war of supremacy in culture", which is still being carried out in the international arena, at least on equal rights and levels. And the pioneering composers of polyphonic Turkish art-music, who took action with the Republic, and our younger generation composers who followed them, were successful by writing works created with contemporary techniques and promoting our national art on a universal basis.

It seems, then, that the rich folklore music of our Anatolia, with the works of composers such as Abdülkadir Meragi, Hafiz Post, Itrî, Tab'î Mustafa, İsmail Dede and Zekâi Dede, who have brought unique works to the monophonic national Turkish art-music in the past centuries, have contributed to our contemporary art music. and especially the unique documents of our cultural treasures, which will give the noblest material to our national operas. The new works obtained in this way are also recognized in distant countries by performing by foreign artists, the works of foreign countries at equal level are also performed by our own artists and promoted in our country, thus enabling the formation of an international cultural exchange.

It can be seen that it is an undeniable fact that making in-depth studies and researches on the above-mentioned great masters of monophonic classical Turkish music and their works is a very interesting requirement of Atatürk's efforts to renew the culture. For this reason, it is imperative that the concise works of monodic-modal Turkish music be studied by our composers and musicologists, who are closely acquainted with the compositional science of Western music in every aspect, in the Musicology Institutes, which should be established as soon as possible in our universities. It is certain that today's individual practices that helped to create polyphonic contemporary Turkish art-music will turn into an objective science that will be formed by the structural existence of our own music, that is, a unique science required by polyphonic Turkish art-music composition in the very near future. It is beneficial to perform and listen to our monodic music with explanations in the seminars to be organized by the Musicology Institutes, which should be established under the Faculties of Literature of our universities, or in the free sessions called Collegium Musicum to be applied programmatically. Moreover, the Comparative History of Classical Turkish Music course was included in the curriculum, which was started to be implemented when Ankara State Conservatory was established, for composition classes, and this important course was given by the masters of classical Turkish music, such as the late Ruşen Ferit Kam and Mesut Cemil Tel, for many years; and that this system is still in use today, there should be no contrary opinion. It is beneficial to perform and listen to our monodic music with explanations in free sessions called Collegium Musicum, which will be applied programmatically. Moreover, the Comparative History of Classical Turkish Music course was included in the curriculum, which was started to be implemented when Ankara State Conservatory was established, for composition classes, and this important course was given by the masters of classical Turkish music, such as the late Ruşen Ferit Kam and Mesut Cemil Tel, for many years; and that this system is still in use today, there should be no contrary opinion. It is beneficial to perform and listen to our monodic music with explanations in free sessions called Collegium Musicum, which will be applied programmatically. Moreover, the Comparative History of Classical Turkish Music course was included in the curriculum, which was started to be implemented when Ankara State Conservatory was established, for composition classes, and this important course was given by the masters of classical Turkish music, such as the late Ruşen Ferit Kam and Mesut Cemil Tel, for many years; and that this system is still in use today, there should be no contrary opinion. Comparative Classical Turkish Music History course was given for composition classes and this important course was given by the masters of classical Turkish music such as the late Ruşen Ferit Kam and Mesut Cemil Tel for many years; and that this system is still in use today, there should be no contrary opinion. Comparative Classical Turkish Music History course was given for composition classes and this important course was given by the masters of classical Turkish music such as the late Ruşen Ferit Kam and Mesut Cemil Tel for many years; and that this system is still in use today, there should be no contrary opinion.

Some of the works of Western composers for various purposes, such as Johannes Ogkeghem (1430?-1495), Giovanni da Palestrina (1525-1594), Orlando di Lasso (1532-1594) and Josquin de Près (1450-1521) The research and analysis of ancient works written by musical artists, and even the Collegium Musicum collective listening sessions at universities have contributed greatly; is still happening.

The innovations achieved by transforming the theoretical view and understanding of Atatürk's Tradition-Cultural Dynamism into practical applications have led to the emergence of a rich and colorful series of events aimed at specific goals in the last fifty years, as follows: 1) First of all, Ankara a Music Teacher's School (Music Teacher's School) was established in 1924; 2) Efforts to fully develop the national culture were accelerated and the Istanbul Academy of Fine Arts was reorganized by strengthening it with local and foreign experts (1936); 3) Turkey's first Painting and Sculpture Museum was opened in the Crown Office of the Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul (1937); 4) The State Painting and Sculpture Exhibitions, which were first put into operation in Ankara (1938), are still continuing and awards are given to the artists that the jury deems appropriate; 5) The Palace Orchestra and Harmony Harmony (1828), which was founded in Istanbul by Giuseppe Donizetti (1788-1856), moved to Ankara with the Republican era and was attached to the Presidency (1923); 6) A State Conservatory was established in Ankara (1935) and to assist the studies, the famous German composer of the time Paul Hindemith (1895-1963) and the famous theater and opera director Prof. Carl Ebert (1887-1980) was invited to Ankara from the West to enable his activities as contracted experts and the institution was strengthened with local and other foreign experts; 7) A State Theater with young generation artists trained by Ankara State Conservatory and theater, music, opera and ballet departments was put into operation in its new building (1948/49/50); 8) In order to benefit from the rich folklore resources of the country, attention was paid to compiling studies throughout the country and a Folklore Archive was established in the State Conservatory (1937); 9) A special law was passed in order to ensure that our children, who are highly successful in all branches of art, were brought up in Turkey and abroad (1947), and thanks to this law, young generation artists who properly introduced contemporary Turkey were trained in the major cultural centers of the world. A very important issue will also be mentioned below; 10) Ankara State Conservatory carried its activities to our other big cities, and State Conservatories were established in Izmir and Istanbul; 11) Our artists trained in the State Conservatory, State Theaters and State Opera and Ballet in Istanbul and Izmir, They carried out the establishment of State Symphony Orchestras, polyphonic choirs for different purposes; 12) Some of our artists who grew up in the State Conservatory have been successful in promoting the stage Atatürk's Turkey has reached in contemporary culture, even abroad, with their activities. Turkish concertists, opera and ballet artists and especially young orchestra conductors who have introduced themselves in recent years, as will be explained further below They have been applauded on world stages, even on other foreign stages, as in Milan's La Scala Theatre.

Unfortunately, one of the movements listed above could not be protected from the hindering effect of distance from the art of music and inadequacy in culture and lost its validity. This very important event is the repeal of the law on the raising of our children (who are also called “wonderful children”) who are extraordinarily successful in fine arts, which was explained in the 9th place above. Even the later administrations could not realize that the law in question, which enabled one of the most important movements of the Tradition-Cultural Dynamism, was rendered inoperable, that is, that this movement was completely opposed to Atatürk's cultural revolutions!

The chronological explanations above, which are the products of the last fifty years of Atatürk's contribution to Tradition-Cultural Dynamism, should be analyzed in detail below. And these analyzes will be enough to reveal the evolutionary effort of especially polyphonic contemporary Turkish art-music among our national-contemporary arts, which is powered by internal and external factors. In fact, such a progression, examples of which will be given below, is the famous philosopher Ziya Gökalp's saying, “Although tradition is a fertile and creative force on its own, it is revived by foreign innovations instilled in it by taking inspiration from the water of life in its veins and does not rot away like common imitations!” According to his content opinion, it is also a clear meaning to what extent he is fed with a solid truth.

One of the foreign innovations in Ziya Gökalp's comment above is “education”, that is, innovations that are unknown until they are educated and taught; secondly, it is an effort to evaluate the unlimited innovations and beauties that international art and culture encounters can evoke, within our national culture, according to our own understanding.

Atatürk's movements related to his contributions to the Tradition-Cultural Dynamism, being examined in order below, allow the formation of proud pictures; namely:

Turkish composers who completed their composition expertise in music academies in major cultural centers of the West such as Paris, Vienna, Prague and Munich have had a great influence on the formation and development of contemporary Turkish music literature, especially in the last fifty years. And our composers, who had their education in the West, were brought up as students of world-renowned art greats such as Marguerite Long, Raoul Laparra, Vincent d'Indy, Arthur Honegger, Joseph Marx and Alois Habá. These pioneering composers have been described as the “Turkish Fives” of our music era.

With the Atatürk's revolutions, the efforts, which were mostly sustained by taking strength from contemporary science and technique in every branch of our fine arts, contributed to the contemporary culture of the country, such as painters, musicians, sculptors, dramatists, ballet dancers, who are educated at a level that will contribute not only to our national culture but also to the international world culture. have been created and developed. Among these artists, composers, virtuosos, painters, sculptors, directors, actors, opera singers, conductors, ballet dancers, who are known for their outstanding success, came out and introduced themselves in the country and abroad.

The composers of the Republican era, who contributed greatly to the development of polyphonic Turkish art-music, continued their works mostly in generations based on a common humor in terms of differences in their technical and aesthetic understandings. The number of these composers, including those who have undertaken educational duties, does not exceed 14 for now, including “Five”. In the transition from one generation to the next, formed by these 14 composers, the technical and aesthetic practice, which is powered by the traditional learning principle of the Ankara State Conservatory, inevitably reaches a kind of saturation over time and naturally gives its place to a separate generation that tries to adopt a new understanding and practice. a different generation and alternative from the previous one is taking action in creation and in practice.

The names of our polyphonic Turkish art-music composers, who are dependent on the above-mentioned alternatives or who only perform a special style created by their personalities, are listed in the table below in chronological order; The internationally renowned Beşler, or Öncüler, who, after reaching their saturation with the large-scale works they created, which are considered the basis of the whole generation, or alternatives, transferred their works to the first alternative, the first young generation composers, most of whom were their own students, with interest and enthusiasm. Here is the list of following composers:

• Cemal Reşit Rey, Ferit Alnar, Ulvi Cemal Erkin, Ahmet Adnan Saygun, Necil Kazım Akses,
• Bülent Tarcan, Ekrem Zeki Üngör,
• Sabahattin Kalender, Kemal İlerici, Bülent Areli, Nevit Kodallı, İlhan Usmanbaş, Cengiz Tanç.

A professional writing that includes general culture and basic education works in the field of contemporary Turkish music has been developing for fifty years, and the leading authors who contributed to this field are: Mahmut Ragıp Gazimihal, Halil Bedi Management, Ahmet Adnan Saygun.

Atatürk gave particular importance to the art of opera. As a matter of fact, Ata started his first studies on opera in 1934, when there was not yet a conservatory in Ankara, with two leading composers of the time, and the efforts related to the selection of the necessary subjects and the preparation of the opera texts (librettos) for 3 Turkish operas, which are the first products of such an initiative. They also took care of their development and maturation directly under their own directives and control. In fact, Atatürk gave the subject of the first of these operas, “Oz Soy” opera. Ahmet Adnan Saygun composed the "Öz Soy" and "Taş Bebek" operas, and Necil Kazım Akses composed the "Bayönder" opera among the works whose preparations were completed in a very short time. Subjects related to these works Atatürk frequently reviewed the texts, which were converted into librettos in verse by the late Münir Hayri Egeli, one of the art writers of the time, and helped the texts to develop further with his warnings and directives. These first three operas of our polyphonic music history express Atatürk's love of nation and people, and his ideals of peace and brotherhood. And the view that the way to the salvation of humanity can be set foot with the same values ​​has turned into a symbolism that is powered by human love in these three operas.

The artistic ideal formed by Atatürk's immense love for his nation and humanity manifests itself with all its clarity in the preparatory works of the first three Turkish operas briefly mentioned above, which are carried out under their supervision. Out of these three works, the “Oz Soy” opera was first staged for the ceremony held in Ankara for the then president of our neighbor Iran, Rıza Shah Pahlavi, who had officially visited our country in 1934 (June 19, 1934). The premieres of “Taş Bebek” and “Bayönder” operas were held in Ankara Community Center on the occasion of the 15th anniversary of Atatürk's first arrival in Ankara (27 December 1934).

Atatürk's extraordinary sensitivity to the opera "Oz Soy", whose subject they have given in particular, is powered by the ideal of a Turkish composer to create a work of art that will symbolize the brotherly approach of the Turkish and Iranian peoples to each other. The subject, which was obtained by combining two famous mythologies of the Turkish and Iranian peoples with the initiatives of Ata, has a great influence on being a source for the “Oz Soy” opera. And in this work, Ata paid great attention to the evaluation of the closeness between the Turkish and Iranian nations in a way that would be the basis for the ideal of one lineage and two brothers.
According to the common story formed by the two mythologies related to Turkish and Iranian culture in the “Oz Soy” opera, after the birth of human beings on earth, a conflict begins between light and darkness, that is, between good and evil. Finally, the day comes, humanity, captive to darkness, Dahhak, who brought all disasters to itself. It overthrows the city with the joint war of the two heroes in the Turkish and Iranian mythologies and gives way to the light. Thus, the people who regained the light elect Feridun Bey as their leader. Feridun had 3 sons: Tur, İrac, Selm. Tur becomes Ata to the Turanians, İrac to the Iranians, and Selm to the West. Here is Atatürk's inaccessible genius in creating a common ideal by transforming the good-neighbourhood joke, which he valued wholeheartedly, into a completely different story through art!

Unfortunately, Ata could not see the successive peaks of the Ankara State Conservatory and the works of the Ankara State Theatre, Opera and Ballet, which is the products of this institution, and the Izmir and Istanbul State Conservatories and Symphony Orchestras, which were established in later years, and the Istanbul and Izmir State Opera and Ballets. He closed his eyes to the mortal world on the 10th day of November 1938.

At the time of Paul Hindemith and Prof. Continuing its development with the contribution of two great Western experts such as Carl Ebert, Ankara State Conservatory successfully reached 1942 after nine years of experience and the Second World War was continuing with all its violence on the fronts. At that time, the institution's Practice Stage and Opera Studio were also successful in staging major works of world theater and opera literature, partly as educational tools and partly before invited audiences. One day, the Opera Studio completed the preparations for the opera "Sold Engagement" by the great Czech composer Smetana (1824-1884), and the work was performed in Turkish with great success (11 February 1943). Despite the severity of the Second World War, such an interesting art news reaching the major cities of the West, The head of the Czech administration in exile in London, Dr. How touched Beneş must have been that this sad statesman could not help but send a message to the Minister of National Education of Turkey through our Embassy; Dr. Beneş said in this message: “The fact that this opera was performed under the known conditions of the day is an act that requires the utmost appreciation of the entire Czechoslovak nation. The Czechs, especially in the face of the kindness of the situation they are in, feel extremely grateful and grateful to the Turkish nation for such an act and behavior!”. The fact that it was played under the usual conditions of the day is an act that deserves the utmost admiration of the entire Czechoslovak nation. The Czechs, especially in the face of the kindness of the situation they are in, feel extremely grateful and grateful to the Turkish nation for such an act and behavior!”. The fact that it was played under the usual conditions of the day is an act that deserves the utmost admiration of the entire Czechoslovak nation. The Czechs, especially in the face of the kindness of the situation they are in, feel extremely grateful and grateful to the Turkish nation for such an act and behavior!”.

Some of our young generation artists who grew up in Ankara State Conservatory have contributed to the international music, opera and ballet repertoires as well as the national repertoire in a short period of 50 years. like- in the main stages of the West, and by the way Milan, Vienna, Paris, Rome, Naples, Venice, London, Dublin, Edinburgh, Moscow, Leningrad, Munich, Hamburg, Hannover, Düsseldorf, Giessen, Prague, Brno, Bratislava, Amsterdam, Helsinki They have played the leading roles of major works of the world opera repertoire with outstanding success as a guest artist in the operas of cities such as Budapest, Bucharest, Belgrade, Sofia, San Francisco, Johannesburg and in international festivals;They have participated in the world's major ballet ensembles as prima-ballerinas and ballet dancers, they have also promoted contemporary Turkish art and music by giving concerts and recitals, and they still continue their work.

Towards 1954, it is seen that our polyphonic music composers were busy with the preparations for the initiatives to be taken towards reaching large-scale symphonic works. First of all, this kind of preparation, powered by Atatürk's revolutions, is an effort to enable vast works of art, created with the contribution of contemporary Turkish literature as well as Turkish Sufi literature, to open their eyes to a new and fresh life with the language of music. It is natural that Ahmet Adnen Saygun's "Yunus Embre Oratorio" and Nevit Kodallı's "Atatürk Oratorio" composed of poet Cahit Külebi's verse text describing the War of Independence should be cited as examples of such an artistic revolution.

The Turkish premiere of the “Yunus Emre Oratorio” written by Ahmet Adnan Saygun for orchestra, choir and soloists, using the hymn of a world-renowned folk mystic like Yunus Emre (1240-1321), on May 25, 1946, Ankara Faculty of Languages, History and Geography. The French première was made in Paris under the direction of Saygun, with the French translation of the Yunus Divan's French musicologist Eugène Borrel (1876-1961), in Paris in 1947, under the direction of Saygun, first on the radio, radio orchestra, choir. and soloists, and later in the same year, again in Paris with the Lamoureux Orchestra, in St. It was repeated by the Eustache choir and soloists, under Saygun's direction, at the Pleyel Hall.
The United States premiere of the “Yunus Emre Oratorio” with the English text was on November 25, 1958, under the direction of the famous conductor of the time, Leopold Stokowsky (1882-1974), with the Symphony of the Air orchestra and the New York State University Higher Teacher Training School. It was performed by the choir (Crane Chorus) and soloists in the great hall of the United Nations building in New York, and the piece was repeated at Crane College on 14 December of the same year under Saygun's direction. The performance of the oratorio, both in Paris and New York, had a great impact in the foreign press, and it was gratifying.

The first three examples of Ata's principle of renewing and refreshing our national tradition and culture with the help of contemporary technique and that can be selected and shown among the extensive literature are Saygun's two operas, "Yunus Emre Oratorio" and "Kerem" and "Köroğlu", which he wrote in large-opera form. . Another large-scale work that should be shown among works of this type is Nevit Kodallı's “Atatürk Oratorio”. Thus, both of our composers have brought 4 great works to our national-contemporary music literature as well as to the international music literature.

In his “Yunus Emre Oratorio”, Adnan Saygun expressed Yunus's priority given to love in mental and spiritual exaltation, with the unique narrative humor of the powerful and vast technique underlying the oratorio form. The world premiere of the 3-act and 8-stage opera “Kerem”, composed by Saygun, who has produced works in almost every branch of music, by processing the Kerem tale that has been circulating all over Anatolia for centuries, at the Grand Theater in Ankara on March 22, 1953. has been made. The world premiere of the 3-act and 8-stage “Köroğlu” opera, composed by Saygun from the Köroğlu Epic, was held on 23 June 1973, between the performances of the International Istanbul Festival and at the Open Air Theatre.

Nevit Kodallı, in his "Atatürk Oratorio", expressed the heroic resistance, invincible effort and the spirit that supported these superior traits, in the holy struggle of Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, which, like the War of Independence, opened the way to liberation not only for us, but for all captive nations; and the work was first performed at the Ankara State Theater on November 9, 1953, due to the transfer of Atatürk's saintly body to the Anıtkabir.

It is certain that, instead of mentioning the successes of our young musicians both in the country and in the countries mentioned above, mentioning only a few of them will certainly reflect the important artistic events as they are. For example, our famous dramatic soprano Leyla Gencer, who had her music education at the Istanbul Municipal Conservatory but evaluated her professional excellence on the stages of Ankara State Opera and foreign operas, is the voice of French composer Francis Poulenc's (1899-1963), whose world premiere was performed at the La Scala Theater in Milan in 1957. He played the leading role in his opera "Les Dialogues des Carmélites" with extraordinary power and was applauded with admiration. Symphonic concerts and recitals given in Ankara on the same dates played a major role in enriching the music world of modern Turkey. As a matter of fact, in the 1958/59 concert season,

Ankara State Theater and its Opera Department, which became operational in 1949 with the graduates of the State Conservatory, have also been successful in developing an increasingly rich repertoire over a period of 14 years, including the academic years. Thus, the year 1958 was reached, and the State Opera easily reached a stage where it could stage a very difficult piece of the international repertoire as needed: These works, which were premiered in Ankara with Turkish text, are "Salome" by Richard Strauss (1864-1949), one of the great composers of our time. and Carl Orff's (1895-1982) operas "Smart Girl" (Die Kluge). Both works were successfully staged in Turkish by the artists of our young opera, and the day after the "Salome" opera was played, the composer of the piece was not alive, so his son Dr.

It constitutes the innovation that Atatürk brought to our fine arts and especially polyphonic national Turkish music and music, and the innovations that he will bring in the future, with the pace of Atatürk's contributions to Tradition-Cultural Dynamism. In his speeches that opened his periods, the warning suggestions he directed to the legislature and therefore to our nation played a major role. Here again, our pioneer composers and younger generation composers, who took care to produce works in the light of the concise principles and beliefs of our Ata mentioned in this review, have not neglected to be inspired by international sources as well as our traditions. Among the works that cannot be mentioned, They succeeded in incorporating opera, an extraordinary branch of musical art. The operas they wrote with the composers of these works are: Cemal Reşit Rey: Sultan Cem, Zeybek, Çelebi; Ahmet Adnan Saygun: Öz Soy, Taş Bebek, Kerem (large-opera), Köroğlu (large-opera), Gilgameş (epic-drama); Necil Kazım Akses: Bayönder (first 3 paintings); Nevit Kodalli: Van Gogh, Gilgamesh; Sabahattin Kalender: Nasreddin Hodja, Karagöz, Deli Dumrul; Ferit Tuzun: Ears of Midas; Cetin Işıközlü: Gulbahar; Cengiz Tanc: Deli Dumrul; Okan Demiris: IV. Murat. Van Gogh, Gilgamesh; Sabahattin Kalender: Nasreddin Hodja, Karagöz, Deli Dumrul; Ferit Tuzun: Ears of Midas; Cetin Işıközlü: Gulbahar; Cengiz Tanc: Deli Dumrul; Okan Demiris: IV. Murat. Van Gogh, Gilgamesh; Sabahattin Kalender: Nasreddin Hodja, Karagöz, Deli Dumrul; Ferit Tuzun: Ears of Midas; Cetin Işıközlü: Gulbahar; Cengiz Tanc: Deli Dumrul; Okan Demiris: IV. Murat.

The movements described so far are the proud results that bear the importance of being a retrospective balance sheet of the practices related to our artists who contributed to the Tradition-Cultural Dynamism in the light of the belief coming from Ata. At this point, it is imperative to turn from a retrospective to a somewhat forward-looking perspective by informing the esteemed readers of the achievements of our own artists who grew up with Western techniques in many parts of the world in April-July 1984, and which they will undoubtedly achieve in the future; namely:

Our famous pianist, State Artist İdil Biret, who was brought up with the opportunities provided by a special law known as the Law of Wonderful Children, gave concerts and recitals in many cities of Australia and New Zealand last April and July, introducing contemporary Turkish culture to us in far away countries of the world. and received brilliant reviews.

It would be useful to inform our readers about the success of our own artists at the International Music Festival held in Moscow in May 1984. According to this news obtained through the press, a piano concerto of our famous composer Bülent Tarcan, who was invited to the aforementioned festival, was played by his own daughter, esteemed pianist Hülya Tarcan, under the direction of Soviet conductor Veronica Dudarova, accompanied by the Moscow Symphony Orchestra, and was enthusiastically applauded. Two of our esteemed artists, cellist Gönül Gökdoğan and pianist Judith Uluğ, who attended the same festival as guests, sang a piece of our famous composer Bülent Arel, who is still working in the United States, and were applauded with interest.

Remziye Alper, the esteemed soprano of the Istanbul State Opera and Ballet, played the role of Norma in Vincenzo Bellini's “Norma” opera on May 26, 1984, in Skopje, Yugoslavia, at the May Opera Festival, which was highly acclaimed and received a proud critique in the press. has taken place.

Orhan Tanrıkulu, one of the conductors of the Istanbul State Opera, successfully conducted Verdi's “Aida” opera as a guest conductor in the Bucharest opera, to play the role of our esteemed soprano Remziye Alper Tanrıkulu, both of them were applauded with enthusiasm (26 June 1984).

Our famous cellist, State Artist Suna Kan, who was brought up in accordance with the law on the raising of our gifted children, which we mentioned above, was unfortunately abolished as a result of ignorance, and was invited to Greece to give a concert with the Thessaloniki Symphony Orchestra in January (28 January 1984).

The Presidential Symphony Orchestra has been officially invited to Spain to participate in the International Madrid Festival. Our orchestra will include Ahmet Adnan Saygun's Piano Concerto and Ferit Tüzün's “Çeşme Başı” suite in its program, introducing the polyphonic contemporary Turkish art-music of Atatürk's Turkey, while performing some important works of Western music literature; The Presidential Symphony Orchestra has moved to Spain on September 23, 1984.

There are many more good things to write here, but that's enough for now. Despite the heartwarming effectiveness of the movements related to our own artists, which have been explained above, we should not ignore a very interesting and even vital issue that needs to be scrupulously addressed:

Unfortunately, the Republic of Turkey is still deprived of a Cultural Policy that will prevent the obstacles that oppose our art world's uninterrupted continuation of its evolutionary efforts, and protect the Tradition-Cultural Dynamism, which is powered by Atatürk's revolutions, from all kinds of interventions! This law should be such a law that no political power should be able to prevent Turkey's efforts towards Atatürk's culture in culture, in the face of its power that protects national renewal and modernization, and prevents corrupt practices and glorifies national culture internationally!

It is an undeniable fact that as the practices that harm the educational, uplifting and beautifying power of Atatürk's revolutions continue in the country, the ideal of evaluating national culture for the benefit of the society, which was initiated by the Great Leader in 1923, will be deprived for many years; and such a fact should be known as it is by our cultural and artistic institutions at all levels, our official publications and all intellectuals. And only with a solid Cultural Policy that the Republic should have as soon as possible, it will be possible for us to promote our national culture to the whole world properly and to take the place we deserve in the community of nations, at least at an equal right and level. With the development in culture and art, in line with Atatürk's revolutions,

In our country, especially in the arts, what should be presented and taught to the individual and society before anything else is correct, even mandatory, can only be determined by taking strength from a sound Cultural Policy. Moreover, democratic practice, which is of great importance in the field of culture and art, will be achieved in this way, because all practices contrary to free education and training that are beneficial to society in all respects are antidemocratic pressure elements that try to force something useless into their minds; And just as it will not be possible to pay the damages of such a mistake with nothing, it is certain that the understanding of what and how it will cause harm will be deprived for years.

It is possible to solve these bitter problems in our country only by taking the distances sincerely in the footsteps of Atatürk's revolutions; And that's when our official organs at the forefront of the subject, the classical works created by the great masters of polyphonic contemporary Turkish art-music and monophonic (monodic-modal) music, the rich folk music treasures of our Anatolia and the international music literature of the world, how and how they will be able to easily implement the most accurate and most beneficial application in terms of what type, how and at what rate they should be evaluated.

Despite everything, it is a fact that the stages created by the contribution of the Great Leader Atatürk to the Traditional Cultural Dynamism are pregnant with many more successes for the future. In that case, no matter how rough the road to national-contemporary culture is, and no matter how dangerous our evolutionary efforts fight with dangerous tides, the fact that Atatürk's revolutions derive their power only from modern science and technology will be the main factor in Turkey's reaching the desired stage in culture eventually; no doubt about it!

Cevad Memduh ALTAR

Gazi Mustafa Kemal, Great Speech, Ankara, 1927.
Atatürk's Discourses and Statements, Turkish Revolution History Institute publications, Ankara, 1961.
Prof.Dr. Dr. Afet Inan, What I Wrote by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Altinok Printing House, Ankara, 1969.
Ziya Gokalp, Turkification, Islamization, Contemporaryization, 1918, Revolution Bookstore, Istanbul, 1950.
Ahmet Adnan Saygun, Ataturk and Music, Together with Him, O' Afterwards, Sevda-Cenap And Foundation, Ajans-Türk Printing Industry, Ankara.
Rauf Yekta, La Musique Turque (Turkish Music), Encyclopédie de la Musique et Dictionnaire du Concervatoire, Paris, 1922.
Mahmut Ragıp Gazimihal, Anatolian Turks and Our Musical Future, Marifet Printing House, Istanbul, 1928.
Cevad Memduh Altar, Art Journeys, National Education Press, Istanbul, 1951.
Jacob Burckhardt, Weltgeschichtliche Betrachtungen (Reviews on World History), Alfred Kröner Verlag, Stuttgart, 1938.
Prof.Dr. Dr. Max Diez, Allgemeine Ästhetik (General Aesthetics), GJ Göschenschen Verlagshandlung, Berlin, Leipzig, 1912.
Dr. Karl Grunsky, Musikästhetik (Musical Aesthetics), Walter de Gruyter und Co., Berlin, Leipzig, 1923.
Wilfrid Mellers, Musik und Gesellschaft (Music and Society), 2 volumes, Fischer Bücherei, Frankfurt/M., 1964.
Albert Lewkowitz, Hegels Ästhetik im Verhältnis zu Schiller (Relation of Hegel Aesthetics with Schiller Aesthetics) (PhD Thesis), Verlag der Dürrschen Buchhandlung, Leipzig, 1910.
(1) Ata's principles, which have been simplified from place to place, are taken from the book titled Atatürk's Discourses and Statements (Turkish Revolution History Institute publications, 1961, Ankara).

(2) Ziya Gokalp: "Turkification, Islamization, Contemporary", 1918, Revolution Book, Istanbul 1950.

(3) Weltgeschichliche Betrachtungen, Alfred Kröner Verlag, Stuttgart 1938.

Source : (TC Atatürk High Council of Culture, Language and History, Atatürk Cultural Center, ERDEM, Vol: I, May 1985, Issue: 2, Separate Edition – Offprint, Turkish Historical Society Press, Ankara, 1985)

We would like to thank Ms. İnci Kut, daughter of Cevad Memduh ALTAR, for her support. 

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Contribution of Atatürk's Evolutionary Philosophy to Tradition-Cultural Dynamism